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odyssey thesis ideas Pictures and Poetry. Debunking the Bunk: An Examination of Picturesque Influence. A Thesis in the Department of English.
Presented in college admission partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of entry Master of Arts at Concordia University Montreal, Canada. Keith Waddington 1998. School of Graduate Studies. This is to certify that the thesis prepared. By: Keith Waddington. Entitled: Pictures and Poetry. College Admission Outline! Debunking the Bunk: An Examination of Picturesque Influence and submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of.
Pictures and Poetry. Debunking the Bunk: An Examination of Picturesque Influence. This thesis examines the essays in english, history and development of the Picturesque, its definition, theoreticians, and practitioners; and its influence on romanticism. The focus is the correction of pejorative and negative assessments common in college essay modern literary studies which provide a misleading interpretation of both the bless essay, Picturesque and essay outline, its influence. Thesis And Drug Abuse! The goal is a broader understanding which suggests the necessity of a new evaluation of Wordsworth’s “groundbreaking” contribution to literary development. Accordingly, an extensive introductory section examines pre-Picturesque and Picturesque painting, outlining the beginnings of a new and college admission essay, particularly English aesthetic. Also, an exploration of pre-Picturesque poetry and formative Picturesque poetry reveals the literary ramifications of this aesthetic. Finally, Wordsworth and Keats are canvassed within the Picturesque context: Wordsworth to demonstrate the origins and erroneousness of the modern critical bias and the way his poetry was often formulated according to Picturesque principles; Keats to demonstrate the longevity and girls essay, continuing importance and influence of the Picturesque. Conclusions are conclusive. Table of Contents. Section One: The Canvas.
Section Two: Background. Section Three: The Middle Ground: Wordsworth. Section Four: The Foreground: Keats. Section One: The Canvas  [The] theory and practice of the Picturesque constitute the major English contribution to college admission essay outline, European aesthetics. (Watkin, vii) The romantics . Boys Essay! . . inherited the essay, picturesque way of looking at nature, but realised that it . Me Ultima! . . College Admission Outline! had become a tyranny, so they invented new ways of seeing which were new ways of feeling. (Brownlow, 16) Major contribution or tyranny? When modern scholars of thesis statement abuse literature observe the Picturesque and its influence on romantic poetry, ideas become gods and facts their disciples. The extensive adoption, intrinsic importance and college admission essay outline, “capability” of the operations management term paper, Picturesque—willingly acknowledged by art historians like Watkin—are expurgated, summarily sacrificed on the altar of college entrenched literary dogma, and the service of academia becomes a self-serving exercise in girls smarter boys essay blind faith. This section will provide a prolegomenon to scepticism, describing the essay outline, aesthetic context for the Picturesque movement, demonstrating the links between early continental landscape painting, neo-classicism, the Picturesque, later English landscape artists and romanticism.
Besides offering essential background, outlining the artistic continuum which these links illustrate—revealing the inevitability of romanticisms and thus sanctioning a less venerational view of Wordsworth—the principle intent here is to provide a more useful definition of the Picturesque. Paper! In terms familiar to tabloid conspiracy theories: to tell you what they don’t want you to know. In the beginning was the word, and the word was Picturesque. Although perhaps peculiar to the pictorially educated modern, an aesthetic appreciation of landscape scenery was inconceivable prior to the Picturesque period. It is, in simple terms, a skill that requires learning. College Admission! According to argumentative thesis statement and drug, Christopher Hussey in The Picturesque , numerous impediments initially existed, including general Christian doctrine; the early Christian transmutation of admission pagan nature spirits and gods into evil spirits, essentially rendering the natural realm dangerous and even sinful; and the humanistic bias of our classical inheritance. Although valid to varying degrees, the boys essay, chiefest obstacle was more likely the general difficulties of life and outline, travel which often rendered nature antagonist. Learning landscape then was an argumentative and drug abuse, up-hill struggle. The Picturesque movement, prerequisite and intrinsic to this learning process, developed during neo-classicism’s reign supreme, and admission essay outline, the formality and rigidity of that rule, by its very nature, proved conducive rather than obstructive.
The Picturesque, as we shall see, finally provided egress from me ultima religion, neo-classical regulations, where reason could finally take rest, where imagination could romp over hill and dale, where individual feeling accompanied originality. Our journey into the Picturesque begins with the Grand Tour. Subsequent to England’s isolation during much of the seventeenth century and made possible by the Treaty of Utrecht (1713), the Grand Tour was initially a diversion limited to the monied aristocracy. The journey southward to Italy involved either traversing the Alps or following the Rhone. In the accounts of grand tours made between 1640 and 1730 a pictorial view of landscape is exceptional. In each case it can be traced fairly exactly to the actual sojourn in Rome, where the works of Claude and Salvator were to be seen. (Hussey, 84) Indeed, picturesque awareness—commonly the quiddity of modern tourism—was, like landscape painting itself, entirely foreign. College Essay Outline! Chaucer, for example, made three or four trips over the Alps yet never mentioned them once in his poetry.
John Evelyn’s travels between 1644 and 1648 precisely outline a similar aesthetic vacuity, suggesting it was “as if Nature had here swept up the rubbish of the earth in the Alps” (qtd. Hussey, 85); remembering the “horrid mountains” as “troublesome” (qtd. Hussey, 86). Girls Smarter! Similarly, Richard Lassels’ Italian Voyage (1670) mentions Mount Cenis only in practical terms of outline route, “the most desirable for bless me ultima, speed and convenience” (Manwaring, 9). Landscape painting at this time generally existed either as a background to human drama, or as a quasi-scientific topography. Neither was considered—especially for the English, where only the farmer or ditch-digger truly worked in landscape—significant work for the significant painter. When aristocratic travellers finally arrived in Italy, they came upon an important exception to this rule. Claude Lorraine, Salvator Rosa and Gaspard Poussin broke with the traditional subject hierarchy and raised the landscape to lofty heights of respectability. The juxtaposition of the scenery aristocratic tourists had seen and the landscape paintings they confronted provided an college admission, early indication of this parochial aesthetic and me ultima, even philosophical void. The aristocracy progressively responded, bringing home souvenir paintings and prints—an early equivalent of modern picture post-cards—beginning collections and posing as cognoscenti . Grand Tour guide books soon appeared, including practical advice as well as art information. Essentially, the status of landscape paintings in Italy compelled travellers to college, rethink traditional distaste for regions like the Alps, to over-look the associated dangers and discomforts of travel and exploration. The preparatory precepts of the Picturesque aesthetic were thus first introduced into management, England, and it was particularly the paintings of Claude and Salvator Rosa which stimulated the greatest interest. The Less Grand Tour.
In addition to this, the Grand Tour played another important role. In what might be seen as an outline, instance of entry ppt cultural trickle-down theory, the less affluent middle-class, encouraged by college essay, fashionable discussions of Picturesque niceties, was soon occupied with more modest excursions into the English countryside. In search of bless religion landscape, landscape gardens and the galleries of college admission essay mansions, tourists were aided by bless essay religion, new guidebooks and much improved roads to get them there. A dramatic democratic appreciation of college essay landscape was at last being realised, with travellers, invariably, carrying sketch-book and Claude Glass. The Claude Glass, a convex mirror of about four inches diameter with tinted filters and bound up like a pocket-book, effectively compressed and framed landscapes. Analogous to the camera in these film-free days, the user was obviously obliged to turn his back on the scene to observe the framed and filtered view. Hugh Sykes Davies, in his recent analysis of the Picturesque and Wordsworth, offers the following comment: “It is girls smarter, very typical of their attitude to Nature that such a position should be desirable” (223).
Indeed, as we shall see, the comment is merely typical of admission Davies’ view of the system ppt, Picturesque. Timothy Brownlow, in John Clare and Picturesque Landscape , offers a similar comment, all the more mockery for its parentheticality: “As an artist, he [Clare] casts aside, as it were, the Claude Glass (whose user had to admission essay outline, turn his back on the landscape)” (13). Malcolm Andrews, whose In Search for the Picturesque generally circumvents any romantic exploration, consequently offers a more useful note: The imagination as an “intellectual lens” approximates it to the Claude Glass, which can modify and enhance a particular landscape. All the nature, special properties of the admission essay, Glass are present in Coleridge’s well-known account of the origins of his poetic collaboration with Wordsworth and their agreement about the two cardinal points of poetry: “the power of exciting the sympathy of the essay religion, reader by a faithful adherence to the truth of nature, and the power of giving the interest of novelty by admission essay, the modifying colours of the imagination.” (71) Support for the Claude Glass as imaginative metaphor comes from entry of accounting, Claude himself, who was as willing as able to composite the actual with the college essay outline, imaginary: Pastoral Landscape with Ponte Molle (1645), for example (see figure 1), represents a view of the pope’s summer residence. . . . The foreground is smarter than boys essay, imaginary, but the palace is fairly accurately portrayed. The castle-like building bathed in sunlight is a forerunner of the highlighted castles in the middle ground so beloved of Gilpin. (Bicknell, 4) The Picturesque tourists offer moving evidence that the admission outline, Picturesque became as widespread as it was popular. Indeed, the eighteenth century is matched only by the twentieth for nature in english, the per capita number of country house visits.
At Hawkstone in Shropshire, for admission outline, example, “there were so many visitors to the dramatically landscaped park that in c. 1790 an me ultima, hotel was built to accommodate them” (Watkin, vii). College! David Watkin, who examines the Picturesque from the descriptive essay about someone, prospect of art historian, similarly provides an college essay, analysis inscribed by positivism, unequivocally stating that “theory and practice of the Picturesque constitute the major English contribution to European aesthetics” (vii); and that “the Picturesque became the leading building-type in post-Reformation England and has long been recognised as the nation’s principle contribution to in english, the arts” (vii). “In the outline, intervening two hundred years since its discussion . . . the Picturesque has been altered and extended in many ways. Along the way it has acquired a pejorative tint” (Robinson, xii). Categorical and bless essay, “pejorative” statements: “The cultural games of the picturesque” (Woodring, viii); “The vogue of the picturesque” (Nevious, 33); “Comic and faddish as much of the theory appears in retrospect” (Brownlow, 43); W.M. Merchant’s common “cult” (9) epithet; as well as the college admission essay outline, supercilious Davies, who extends this negation to the present, saying “The modern tourists . . . pass through the country at a rate never dreamed of by Gray and West, seeing nothing, and apparently feeling even less” (226), all fail to recognise that this appetite to sample and develop a taste for landscape was redolent of a general change in descriptive aesthetic sense.
In fact, the modern tourist, in the route he selects and with each viewfinder frame often reveals the influence of the Picturesque. Essay Outline! By the start of the nineteenth century, recognition of picturesqueness had become—and remains—second nature. Landscape Artists Abroad. Salvator Rosa (1615-73) As mentioned, Salvator Rosa, Neapolitan painter, etcher, satirical poet and actor, was crucial to the development of the Picturesque and also provides an early link with romantic poetry. In addition to his landscapes, which portrayed the feral and fierce of nature (see figure 3), Salvator displayed a penchant for smarter than, appalling subjects—witches and monsters, meditations upon death and so on—inspiring such romantic painters as Barry, Fuseli and Mortimer, and admission outline, finding poetic expression in descriptive someone dying the romantic inclination towards the gothic and graveyard melancholy. Lady Mortgan’s The Life and Times of Salvator Rosa , published in 1824, depicted the artist as a legendary figure hobnobbing with bandits and joining a popular uprising in college admission Naples, establishing him as the quintessential romantic artist: an outlaw encamped with darkness and despair, whose bravura with the brush was symptomatic of in english a burning artistic brilliance inimical to convention.
Eighteenth century literary explorations of the Picturesque are literally laden with references to Salvator: “What’er Lorrain light touched with softening hue / Or savage Rosa dashed, or learned Poussin drew” ( Castel of Indolence I, XXXVIII). Claude Lorrain (1600-1682) Claude Lorrain, although French, spent his adult life in Rome. Claude was undoubtedly the greatest master of ideal-landscape painting, which seeks to present nature as surnature and concording with the habitual “improvement” of the Picturesque vision. In addition, Claude’s landscapes often contain classical ruins—an initial point of entry for English neo-classicists who required some token scrap of Rome or Athens—a key element modified in the Picturesque movement to accommodate native ruins—both genuine and artificial. Besides his fundamental importance to the Picturesque movement, Claude, like Salvator, exhibited a less direct though nonetheless certain connection with romantic poetry, with his much acclaimed poetic rendering of light. As E. B. Greenshields, Landscape Painting and Modern Dutch Artists , states, “if one artist were to be chosen as founder of modern landscape painting, that title would be rightly given to Claude” (15). Within the neo-classical/romantic context, John Ruskin offers the following: The love of neatness and precision, as opposed to college admission outline, all disorder, maintains itself down to Raphael's childhood without the slightest interference of any other feeling; and it is not until Claude's time, and owing in great part to his influence, that the new feeling distinctly establishes itself. English scenery, initially, existed as a back-drop to continental landscape paintings in much the same way as landscape initially provided only the paper, setting for human pictorial narratives. In a comparison between Dovedale and Keswick, Dr. John Brown wrote:
Were I to analyse the two places in their constituent principles, I shoud tell you, that the full perfection of Keswick, consists of three circumstances, beauty, horror and essay outline, immensity united; the girls smarter than, second of which is alone found in Dovedale. . . . But to give you a complete idea of these three perfections, as they are joined in Keswick, would require the united powers of Claude, Salvator Rosa and Poussin. The first should throw his delicate sunshine over the cultivated vales, the scattered cots, the groves, the lake, and the wooded island. College Essay Outline! The second should dash out the horror of the rugged cliffs, the steep, the hanging woods, and foaming water-falls; while the grand pencil of statement abuse Poussin should crown the college essay, whole with the majesty of the management paper, impending mountains. Admission! (qtd. Davies, 218) The original works of this scanty collection of Italian painters only partly explain the extensive aesthetic transformation in remote England.
Walpole mentions in his Anecdotes several foreign landscape painters living and working in England during the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries.  These included Henry Dankers, employed by Charles II as a topographical artist and Francesco Zuccarelli, who visited England twice, lived in London for five years and became a foundation member of the Royal Academy. Thomas Manby, an Englishman who studied in Italy, brought back the customary collection of paintings to add to his own works. In addition, the enormous popularity of system these artists, especially Claude, led to countless copies and even copies of copies. Less duplicitous was the invention of prints and the development of college essay outline engraving to high art, making the landscapes of the masters as common as the furrowed tellurian landscapes of the peasants (see figures 1 and thesis, 2 ). College! Where the canvas could be known, often imprecisely, by me ultima essay, only a few hundred privileged, the print could be known intimately by the massed thousands. Indeed, print collecting—”No person of Taste could be without a collection of prints” (Manwaring, 84)—became itself a popular pastime. Also, “the amateur landscape painter had begun to flourish before the seventeenth century closed, and long continued to college admission essay outline, flourish increasingly” (Manwaring, 8). The stylistically idealised quality of Claude and Salvator’s paintings provided the nature, inspiration for the Picturesque movement and was then modified as the college, English Picturesque developed, essentially becoming an idealisation of a nature that was rapidly vanishing and celebrating a rural way of life that was being lost. A Picturesque Definition. Perhaps the earliest explicit statement on the Picturesque comes from William Kent in his 1709 Memorandum on the preservation of descriptive essay about dying Woodstock Manor: That part of the Park which is seen from the North Front of the new building has little variety of objects nor does the country beyond it afford any of value. It therefore stands in need of all the helps that can be given. . . Admission! . Buildings and Plantations.
These rightly dispos’d will indeed supply all the wants of me ultima essay religion Nature in that place. And the admission, most agreeable disposition is to mix them: in which this old Manour gives so happy an descriptive, occasion for; that were the enclosures filled with Trees (principally fine Yews and Hollys) promiscuously set to grow up in college essay a wild thicket, so that all the buildings left might appear in girls boys two risings amongst ’em, it would make one of the most agreeable objects that the best of Landskip painters can invent. (qtd. Watson, 17) From this early beginning—remarkably loaded with what would eventually become the nitty-gritty of picturesque idiom: variety, wants of nature, mix, wild, thicket; and concepts: a harmony of architecture and natural surroundings and comparison with landscape paintings—the unfamiliar story of Picturesque development reads rather like the recorded exploits of an ancient relation discovered in admission essay a dusty chest, while categorical definitions have all the interest of his bleached bones. Unfortunately, ubiquitousness and descriptive essay dying, over-familiarity has essentially starved the term of any useful sense and to flesh out that skeletal frame becomes a matter of Hobson’s choice.
So what does “picturesque” really mean? As late as 1794, Uvedale Price wrote: “There are few words whose meaning has been less accurately determined than that of the word picturesque” ( On the Picturesque , 77).  Whether or not we accept J. R. Watson's hypothesis, in Picturesque Landscape and English romantic Poetry , that this period—despite being the college essay outline, most prolific in picturesque studies, picturesque tours and picturesque allusions—actually marks the decline of the movement (a somewhat strange notion considering Turner’s Picturesque series is still decades away), it seems obvious that the time was indeed ripe for some clear definition. Nature! Unfortunately, the multi-disciplinary nature of the subject means that no nut-shell, no matter how perfectly nutty, can contain a definition fair and useful. The stress here then is selectivity, surveying concepts intrinsic to Picturesque theory that reveals strong romantic links and usually glossed-over in modern literary criticism. William Gilpin (1724-1804) Perhaps the most succinct definition of Picturesque comes from Reverend William Gilpin's Essay on Prints (1768): “ . . . a term expressive of that peculiar kind of beauty, which is agreeable in a picture”(xii).
This simple statement is modified by the notion of “picturesque grace,” meaning “an agreeable form which may be given to admission essay outline, a clownish figure”(xii): that stylistic rendition found in “Berghem's clowns, and in Callot's beggars”(29). Double! Thus, in admission outline this simplest of beginnings, the Picturesque relates both to the elements in a scene as well as the artist's treatment of his subject. Essay on Prints provides a broad examination of art and compositional analysis; and Watson's suggestion that for most of the period this definition “was sufficient” seems sufficient only for those unwilling to read the book. Gilpin himself, recognising the descriptive about someone, fribblish finish, offers some restoration in Three Essays: On Picturesque Beauty, On Picturesque Travel, and On Sketching Landscape (1792) . The accepted definition of beauty—most often marked by smoothness and unity—was established by college admission essay, Edmund Burke in A Philosophical Inquiry into the Sublime and Beautiful (1757). Recognising that scenes beautiful according to operations paper, this definition were usually unsuitable subjects for the pencil, Gilpin considered the Picturesque composed of roughness, irregularity and variety. Admission! In addition, Gilpin disagrees with Burke’s conclusions on the beautiful and sublime, where the effect of the former is bless me ultima religion, pleasure, the latter astonishment and that the college essay outline, two, discovered in a single object, cause mutual destruction. In reference to Ullswater, Gilpin writes: “Among all the visions of this enchanted country, we had seen nothing so beautifully sublime, so correctly picturesque, as this” ( Three Essays , 52). The juxtaposition of beautiful and sublime is both deliberate, and—as any present-day hiker in this region will attest—accurate. Indeed, the system, mix of beauty and sublimity, producing the Picturesque, seems to be the gist of Dr.
John Brown’s “beauty, horror and immensity united.” As John Ruskin suggests, “this sublimity may be either in admission essay mere external ruggedness, and other visible character, or it may lie deeper, in essay an expression of sorrow and old age, attributes which are both sublime” By defining the essay outline, principle characteristics of the Picturesque, besides underlining the main weakness of Burke’s theory, Three Essays also achieved dubious honour of virtually codifying picturesque theory. The Picturesque was finally composed of bless religion such illustrative elements as ruins— à la Claude—cottages, villages, twisting tracks; with roughness, intricacy, sudden variation, abruptness, foreground, middleground and background forming the more abstract and general Picturesque paradigm. Gilpin's Picturesque musings, however, exceeded the catalogue of elements and rules of composition, and in this often overlooked material Gilpin’s especial merit becomes clear. For all the asseverations on artistic theory, it was the visual art itself which most concerned Gilpin and admission essay outline, explains the focus of his philosophy. Words,, Gilpin insists, cannot mark the characteristic distinctions of double system each scene, the touches of nature—her living tints—her endless varieties, both in form and colour.—In a word, all the elegant peculiarities are beyond their reach. The pencil, it is true, offers a more perfect mode of description. ( Observations , 10) Indeed, the college admission outline, peculiar strength of language rests elsewhere, and the adoption of essays in english Picturesque sensibilities by college, the poet must—by the very nature of his medium—result in an altered expression and not, to foreshadow central critical dogma, a transcending expression. Besides this conclusion—which literary scholars might find presumptuous—Gilpin keenly discerned the paper, importance of the outline, imaginative faculty: “. Operations Management Paper! . . we may be pleased with the essay outline, description, and the picture.
But the soul can feel neither, unless the force of our own imagination aid the poet's, or the painter's art; exalt the idea, and picture things unseen” ( Observations , 10). Reading poetry, viewing painting, it is the imagination which provides fullest meaning; and it is imagination also which accompanies Gilpin through the descriptive someone dying, Lake District: The evening . College Admission! . . grew more tempestuous . . . Religion! amid the obscurity, which now overshadowed the landscape, the imagination was left at large; and painted many images, which perhaps did not really exist. Admission Essay! . . . Every great and pleasing form, which we had seen during the day, now played, in term strong imagery before the fancy; as when the essay, grand chorus ceases, ideal music vibrates on the ear. ( Observations , 19) Gilpin here describes the descriptive essay about dying, participation of active imagination both in essay outline reading poetry, viewing paintings, and exploring landscape. Followers of the Picturesque then, at least according to Gilpin, are involved with elemental matter both external and internal. Figure 4, for example, offers an unusual composition where the two figures “may be supposed to see the thesis and drug abuse, continuation of a landscape down the college admission essay outline, valley . . . and this gives a sort of clue to operations paper, the imagination” (qtd.
Bicknell, 38). Indeed, the bridge leads the eye outside the frame and it is the unseen which initiates the imagination as much as the admission essay outline, seen. In addition, Gilpin suggests picturesque tourists with an artistic drift should side-step exact copy and superinduce through the imagination and argumentative statement and drug abuse, awareness of picturesque aesthetics: in a sense, the tableau should improve upon admission outline, nature’s raw material. Hiking the lower lake of Buttermere, for example, Gilpin says: “Nothing is nature, wanting but a little more wood, to admission essay outline, make this lake, and the vale in which it lies, a very enchanting scene”( Observations , 3). Although instances such as this provide fodder for operations, scholars hungry to highlight the absurdity of the Picturesque vision, where actual landscape is compared with ideal landscape painting, the methodology actually involves processing nature through artistic sensibility.
Indeed, such comments reveal the Claudian concept of ideal landscape to be never further than the next hill. Heading towards Ullswater, Gilpin writes: “Except the mountains, nothing in college admission essay all this scenery is great ; but every part is filled with the sweet engaging passages of nature” ( Observations , 8). Here, “passages” suggests poetry—indeed, several lines of verse follow—and Gilpin, despite his acute sense of the visual, infers that landscape, painting and poetry are all, deucedly and inextricably, mixed. Published in me ultima essay religion 1792, it pre-dates Wordsworth’s Lyrical Ballads by six years and the poet’s own Guide to the Lakes by eighteen. Gilpin, as a clergyman, was naturally concerned the amorality of the Picturesque. Davies, in an exhibition of ignorance and admission essay outline, forgetfulness, quotes Gilpin’s comment on management the lakeland shepherd: “But the admission essay outline, life of the shepherd, in this country, is not an Arcadian life. His occupation subjects him to many difficulties . . .” (qtd. Davies, 228), subsequently suggesting he afforded no interest in the people who live in landscape! In fact, Gilpin, as we shall see, was personally concerned with the well-being of country people and openly acknowledged that the Picturesque stood outside ethical concerns:
In a moral light, cultivation, in operations paper all its parts, is pleasing; the hedge and furrow, the waving corn field, and rows of ripened Sheaves. But all these, the Picturesque eye, in quest of scenes of college outline grandeur, and operations, beauty, looks as with disgust . . . Essay! thus the term paper, lazy cow herd, resting on his pole; or the peasant lolling on a rock, may be allowed in the grandest scenes; while the college, laborous mechanic, with his implements of labour, would be repulsed.” ( Observations, Cumberland , 45) This then is the Picturesque, not Gilpin himself. Gilpin, a school-master, required years of persuasion from friends before agreeing to publish his manuscripts. Subsequent royalties funded a school, “to remedy the conditions of ignorance and squalor” (Manwaring, 184) founded within the argumentative thesis, boundaries of his rural parish. In contrasting urban and rural life, picturesque representations inadvertently suggested a conflict between the reality of children's lives and projected adult attitudes. Many such pictures—including Thomas Gainsborough's cottage series—share a romanticised notion of the college admission essay, countryside as an innocent, idyllic environment. While presenting children in nature essays tattered clothing, the effect is picturesque rather than moral. The very same, of course, can be said of much romantic poetry. Gilpin, often the object of narrow-view animadversion, not only recognises the admission essay outline, problem but selflessly provides some correction.
Despite Gilpin's rule and dogma—measure for measure no more insidious than a modern “How-To” book—his Picturesque views display a diversity to management term, which the satirists were forced to turn a blind eye; an acknowledgement that is as much in accord with romantic contemplation as Picturesque investigation. From 1768 onwards, Gilpin undertook full many provincial journeys in search of the Picturesque, producing a series of illustrated guide books which often suggested specific “stations”—places providing ideal perspective of picturesque vistas. These guides, including Wye and South Wales (1782) and the Lake District (1789), were paramount in the popularisation of the essay, Picturesque as a means of viewing nature and are, of themselves, indicative of the popularity of picturesque tourism. As Watkin suggests, “Gilpin’s numerous topographical books were essentially a preparation for intelligent critical visiting, for the Picturesque presupposes a society which was interested in nature and in essays in english art and, above all, in travelling (vii). In conclusion, Gilpin's introduction to Essays provides the following clarification which modern critics might gainfully peruse: . Essay! . Management Paper! . we picturesque people are a little misunderstood with regard to our general intention . I have several times been surprised at finding us represented, as supposing all beauty to consist in picturesque beauty —and the face of nature to be examined only by college admission outline, the rules of painting. Whereas, in fact, we always speak a different language. We speak of the grand scenes of thesis and drug abuse nature, though interesting in a picturesque light , as having a strong effect upon the imagination . . . we everywhere make distinctions between scenes, that are beautiful , and amusing , and scenes that are picturesque. ( i-ii) Followers of the Picturesque—and their numbers were legion—were concerned with a general appreciation of landscape and nature, though particularly those scenes formed of picturesque elements.
The Picturesque scene was of more intense interest to painters, poets and travellers for college, the simple reason that the Picturesque scene is a scene more intense in its capacity to provoke and induce reflection. And finally, Gilpin offers a warning: Let not inborn pride, Presuming on thy own inventive powers, Mislead thine eye from Nature. She must reign. Great archetype in all. Essays! ( On Landscape Painting: A Poem , 26-30) Uvedale Price (1747-1829) This capacity to provoke is an essential element in the theories of college admission essay Uvedale Price. Like Gilpin, Price adopts Burke's analysis of essays in english beauty: uniformity of surface, gradual variation and so on; as well as Gilpin's own analysis of picturesqueness: roughness, sudden variation, irregularity etc. Price, however, takes exception to pictorially-based definition, suggesting that the Picturesque is related to painting only accidentally:
That term, as we may judge from its etymology, is applied only to essay, objects of sight; and, indeed, in so confined a manner as to be supposed merely to have a reference to and drug abuse, the art from outline, which it is about someone dying, named. I am well convinced however, that the name and reference only are limited and admission essay, uncertain, and essay, that the qualities which make objects picturesque, are not only as distinct as those which make them beautiful or sublime, but are equally extended to all our sensations by whatever organs they are received; and that music—though it appears like a solecism—may be as truly picturesque, according to the general principles of picturesqueness, as it may be beautiful or sublime, according to those of beauty or sublimity. ( On the Picturesque , 79-80) Price also states: “Whoever studies art alone, will have a narrow pedantic manner of considering all objects” (3), stressing the importance also of “the mistress of all art” (4), Nature herself. Price is here drawing attention to the ocular bias of William Payne Knight—introduced below—as part and parcel of a protracted debate. Strange then that Davies should insist that for admission, Gilpin landscape’s “appeal is to the eye . . . only through the eye” (230). Heretically, in a topsy-turvey turn around and about Ullswater, Gilpin’s mentions the smarter than boys, music of the winds and tempest, “the echoes excited . . . in admission different parts of [the] lake” ( Observations, Cumberland , 59). In addition, he tells the bless religion, tale of the Duke of Portland, who owned a vessel fitted with brass cannons designed for the purpose of producing echoes. College! “Such a variety,” he suggests, “of awful sounds, mixing and commixing, and at the same moment heard from all sides, have a wonderful effect on girls smarter the mind” ( Observations, Cumberland, 61).
Another example of the auditory factor in college admission essay the picturesque is Hagley, Lord Lyttelton’s estate, the locale in which Thomson revised and rewrote The Seasons which, besides the artificial ruins, featured a stream carefully designed for maximum gurgleability. Price seeks to take something of the picture from Picturesque, considering it a new category of aesthetic values added to Burke's beautiful and bless essay, sublime. . . . College Essay Outline! picturesqueness appears to hold a station between beauty and sublimity; and, on that count, perhaps, is and drug abuse, more frequently, and more happily blended with them both, than they are with each other. It is, however, perfectly distinct from either. Beauty and picturesqueness are indeed evidently founded on very opposite qualities; the one on smoothness, the other on roughness; the one on gradual, the other on sudden variation; the one on ideas of youth and freshness, the other on those of age, and even of decay. ( On the Picturesque , 90) Again, this is only a modification—an engradisement—of Gilpin. Unlike Gilpin’s nation-wide pursuit of the Picturesque, Price concentrated his aesthetic energies upon the picturesqueification of manor gardens; and it is here that the college admission essay outline, two part company.
In fact, it was William Kent, painter, architect and essays in english, factotum of the Earl of Burlington, who led the revolt against the artificial symmetry of gardens, (see figure 5 ), modifying, in 1734, the gardens at Chiswick House with a meandering stream and an irregular path. Price adopted Kent's early ideas and college admission outline, developed a more expansive theory of picturesque landscaping, arguing in On the Picturesque (1794), that gardens should imitate landscape paintings and that the gardener and statement and drug abuse, painter each aspire to the improvement of nature—again, the familiar idea of Nature as archetype which might be improved through art. College Essay Outline! Though inspired by Claude and Salvator, Price also aspired, as suggested above, towards the nature essays, guiding hand of raw nature and offered pragmatic suggestions of picturesque effects landowners might attempt. Unfortunately, Price’s own effect over college admission essay outline, actual landscapes was severely limited by the very nature of abuse his improvements, many of outline which required decades to reach full decay. If the patrician Price failed to effect solid change in the English manor landscape, he nevertheless bequeathed a more ironic and widespread legacy: just as “the picturesque sketch promoted naturalism in landscape painting” (Bermingham, 67), Price’s notions fostered a new naturalism in essays gardening—advocating the wild, the dramatic, the “accident” of nature: a withered tree, a half-submerged branch breaking the surface of a pool—and continued the democratisation of the Picturesque aesthetic. Condemned by college essay outline, some contemporaries for taking wildness too far, Price ultimately won a vox populi approval. Indeed, the art of picturesque gardening was soon exported: “. . . the continent, about 1770, began to adopt widely the English . . Essays In English! . Admission Essay! fashion; and works in statement abuse French and Italian were added to the copious literature of landscape gardening” (Manwaring, 121). The clash between aesthetic and utility—essentially the moral dimension—was particularly trenchant for Price, whose expertise was firmly fixed in the land itself.
In reference to college, thatched cottages, for example, he suggests: “It is no less picturesque, when mossy, ragged, and sunk in among the rafters in decay; a species of that character, however, which the keenest lover of it would rather see on another's property than on his own” ( On the Picturesque , 398). To this, the zealous and sometimes verbose editor of the 1842 edition interpolates: I confess, that after considerable experience, I have been completely cured of my romantic attachment to thatch. If the roof of a cottage be well formed, and essay, well projected, so as to throw a deep shadow over the wall beneath it, I do not conceive that it will be necessary to thatch it, in order to add to its picturesque effect, at the risk of diminishing the comfort of the poor inmates. (398) Price the gentleman farmer, occupied with increased production and the maximisation of land use, appears, Ann Bermingham points out, as something of college outline a contradiction to Price the promoter of picturesque aesthetics, biased towards the nostalgic, the antiquated, the rustic, the dilapidated and the inefficient. Descriptive Dying! The contradiction though seems somewhat delusive and is perhaps suggestive of the transformation of the paternal landlord-tenant relationship, with the picturesque manor garden now forming a physical boundary between aesthetic and productive nature. Richard Payne Knight (1750-1824) Richard Payne Knight, who owned the most valuable collection of Claudes in Europe and admission essay outline, whose interests were eclectic,  provides still another perspective.
In, The Landscape: a Didactic Poem in me ultima essay religion Three Books , he refutes compositional analysis, instead seeing art as a “magic power”(8) which defies analysis and rule: Curse on college essay the pedant jargon, that defines. Beauty's unbounded forms to given lines! With scorn eternal mark the cautious fool. Who dares not judge till he consults his rule! Or when, Salvator from in english, thy daring hand. Appears, in burnished arms, some savage band,— Each figure boldly pressing into college admission essay, life, And breathing blood, calamity, and strife, Should cold measure each component part. And judge thy genius by a surgeons art. Operations Term Paper! (6-7)
Knight also disagrees with Price’s multi-sensory theory, believing that the Picturesque “is merely that kind of beauty which belongs exclusively to the sense of vision; or to college essay outline, the imagination guided by essay, that sense”  ( On the Picturesque , 500). Knight provides a curious blend of neo-classical—with his didactic poem festooned in rhyming couplets and his notions of “taste”—and romantic, a clear sign of the transition underway: Such too the Sicyonian sculptor taught. To model motion, and embody thought; Pure abstract beauty's fleeting shades to trace. And fix the image of ideal grace: Combining what he felt with what he saw. (5-6) Besides his emphasis upon essay outline, “feeling” in the almost magical and almost irrational production of about dying art, Knight points towards the dangers of fashion:
Straight lines were the fashion of the last century, and the curved ones are the fashion of college essay outline this, and an indiscriminate adherence to the fashion of the day, what ever it happens to be, with a supercilious contempt for all who venture to dissent from it, is the never failing characteristic of the vanity, separated from the feeling, or discernment, of thesis statement and drug abuse taste. The advocate for the curve lines would have been as much ridiculed in the last century as the advocate for college outline, straight ones in this; and with equal reason; for the indiscriminate use of either is of accounting ppt, equally bad. Many of the college essay, compositions of management term paper Nicholas Poussin show the grand effect which may be produced by college admission outline, the judicious use of straight lines. but the too general use of boys them was still more fatal to picturesque beauty, than the late senseless destruction of them has been. Outline! It belongs to the real improver to discriminate where the straight, and where the curve line will best suit the composition; and it is this talent of discrimination which distinguishes the liberal artist from the term paper, mechanic. (fn 11) Here, “faddish” (Brownlow, 43) modern appraisals typified also by college admission outline, the “vogue of the picturesque” (Nevious, 33) are clearly drawn and in english, quartered by Knight’s properly considered execution of Picturesque principles which supersede transient newfangledness and commemorate the sempiternal. Knight's fixation upon “taste,” and “discrimination,” are reminiscent of the superciliousness of a Pope or a Swift, though his distinction between the mechanic and liberal artist—one who follows no rules besides those which the magic spirit of art suggests—offers a place within the romantic arena. Knight, like Price, was accused of wild neglect in his landscape theories: an college essay outline, indication indeed of the distance separating the new naturalism from the old neo-classicism. Finally, and perhaps most importantly, Knight insists that the operations management paper, transplanting and mimicking of Italian landscape—both real or painted—should finally be abandoned in preference to college admission, compositions which adopt Picturesque principles and native scenes: Nor, plac’d beneath our cool and wat’ry sky.
Attempt the glowing tints of Italy: For thus compell’d in mem’ry to confide, Or blindly follow some preceding guide, One common track it still pursues, And crudely copies what it never views . . . . (309-314) The work of Price and Knight, though perhaps less interesting a read than Gilpin, augmented the nature essays in english, Picturesque phenomenon to a point where it was not only the college, talk of the town but of the estate and village. Watson’s assessment that “it is difficult to argumentative thesis statement and drug abuse, regard it as much more than a sterile ending,” (21) reveals perhaps a certain sterility in his own point of view rather than providing any useful conclusion. Lancelot Brown (1716-83) Lancelot “Capability” Brown, though embroiled in the Picturesque debate, essentially helped define the college, Picturesque by bless essay religion, negation: Brownian improvement replaced the artificiality of neo-classical landscape gardens with a new artificiality based either upon Burke’s principles of beauty or Brown’s singular notions born orphan and condemned to permanent infancy.
Fundamentally, Brown’s style, though claiming nature as its inspiration, was no less unnatural than, for example, Knole, Nymphenburg or Le Notre's Versailles. If the “improvements” of Price and college admission essay, Knight might take decades to develop, the bumbling “Capability” Brown provided expeditious transformations priced by the yard and complete the day after tomorrow. Gilpin himself comments upon this: This is the descriptive about, first subject of the kind he [Brown] has attempted . . . College Outline! but a ruin presents a new idea; which I doubt whether he has sufficiently considered . . . [His lake] is too magnificent, and too artificial an appendage, to be in and drug abuse unison with the ruins of an abbey. An abbey, it is true, may stand by the side of a lake; and it is possible that this lake may, in some future time, become its situation; when the admission essay outline, marks of the spade and religion, the pick-axe are removed,—when its osiers flourish; and admission essay outline, its naked banks become fringed and covered with wood . . . the ruin stands now on nature essays in english a neat bowling-green like a house just built, and without any kind of connection with the ground it stands on. (qtd. Admission Outline! Watkin, 48) Brown designed his landscapes according to his own simple understanding of nature's harmonies and gradients, featuring vast expanses of grass, irregularly shaped bodies of water, and system of accounting, clumpified tree groupings. As a consequence, Brown eventually became the object of general ridicule: On one occasion Owen Cambridge remarked, “I wish I may die before you, Mr. Brown.” “Why so?” inquired the puzzled but flattered Brown. “Because,” came the reply, “I should like to see heaven before you have improved it.” (qtd. College Admission Outline! Hussey, 139)
Brown clearly and entirely personified the halting and essays in english, maladroit neo-classical Picturesque, an awkward attempt to plant a round tree in a square hole; and his importance stems partly from the middleground his improvements occupied, and partly from the antithetical virtue of something which is essay outline, not providing a point of reference to operations term, something which is. The Philosophical Context. The Grand Tour, the importation of essay souvenir landscape paintings and the increasingly popular provincial trips provide the foundation for all this Picturesque inquiry; but there was additionally a general philosophical investigation which offered a provocative and in english, conducive milieu. Johann Gottlieb Fichte (1762-1814) equated God with the natural order of the world; Wilhelm Wackenroder's Effusions of an Art-Loving Friar (1773-1798) proposed the existence of two Divine languages, the college admission essay outline, first reserved for solely for bless religion, God, the second composed of two components: Nature and Art—a kind of bilingualism for the unilingual. Together, these ideas brought some balance to the traditional Christian bias against nature. College Essay Outline! Most important was Burke’s (1729-1797) aforementioned theory of the sublime: the ultimate experience of divinity, composed of awe, fear and enlightenment, and produced by the contemplation of potent and abuse, alarming nature. The effect of visible objects on outline the passions, clearly, is not only the concern of Burke, but lies at the heart also of Picturesque theory. In effect, these philosophical theories began either to intellectualise landscape and nature—a process continued by the Picturesque school, which allowed a less restricted participation—or attached to it theological importance (see figure 6) where once was seen irreverence. Caspar David Friedrich (1774-1840), for descriptive dying, example, exhibited Cross in the Mountains in 1808: a landscape intended as an altarpiece for college essay outline, a private chapel. Operations! Critics initially condemned this as sacrilegious. Admission Essay! Friedrich's own interpretation of the religion, picture identified the natural images as symbols for religious beliefs: “The Cross stands erected on a rock unshakeably firm as our faith in Jesus Christ.
Evergreen, enduring through all ages, the firs stand round the cross, like the hope of mankind in Him”( Encyclopaedia Britannica ). Landscape and landscape paintings, through these developments, were deemed to be intellectually and religiously interesting and thus offered a respectability previously unknown. Importantly, the religious angle provided only an college outline, initial entry point in what was finally to become an amoral and secular aesthetic. Returning to the properly Picturesque, Thomas West’s Guide to the Lakes, in Cumberland, Westmorland, and Lancashire , first published in 1778, displays the religious overtones of landscape within the context of the descriptive essay, urban/rural dichotomy: Such as spend their lives in cities, and their time in college outline crouds will here meet with objects that will enlarge the mind, by contemplation, and raise it from nature to nature’s first cause. Whoever takes a walk into these scenes must return penetrated with a sense of the creator’s power in heaping mountains upon mountains, and nature in english, enthroning rocks upon rocks. Outline! And such exhibitions of statement and drug abuse sublime and beautiful objects cannot but excite at once both rapture and reverence. (4)
Although religion, ultimately, would be banished from the Picturesque scene, initially such inclusion provided justification and absolution for the new focus on landscape. Within the larger context, the developing interest in landscape painting and landscape itself comes as no surprise and the romantic school of poetry was essentially a natural progression as inevitable as the wooded shadows cast by a brilliant dawn. Landscape Painters Autochtonous. As we have seen, the appreciation of landscape was one which required learning, and it was through landscape painting and college admission essay, painters that this skill was initially acquired. Thomas Gainsborough (1727-88) Thomas Gainsborough, perhaps the earliest and certainly most highly regarded pioneer of picturesque English landscape painting, emerged as.
the most significant landscape painter of the century. Whereas the work of Wilson, the “English Claude,” could be accommodated within the familiar art-history tradition of landscape painting, Gainsborough’s art inspired insights that ran counter to the academic notions of paintings. . . . (Bermingham, 58) Gainsborough “gave landscape the status of pure painting: private, personal” (Bermingham 43). Rejecting portraiture, with its congenital mandate for poetic license, conjured to placate a patron, rather than artistic integrity, Gainsborough believed that the nature essays, material of landscape allowed “. . . the artist freely to exercise his imagination” (Bermingham 44). In his later work, Gainsborough offered ever more subjective and sentimental subjects: the cottage, the sublimity of sea, of mountain, and the innocence of children, each finding a correspondence in such poems as Wordsworth’s “The Ruined Cottage,” “Ode: Intimations of college admission outline Immortality,” “Farewell though little Nook of mountain ground” and “We Are Seven.” In the smarter boys essay, decades after his death in 1788, a veritable inversion of taste had occurred, with critics and college admission, sensible folk alike increasingly praising landscape over about someone, portraits. Gainsborough rejected predefined artistic traditions, embraced English rural subject matter as “a direct response to nature” (Bermingham 58), and established an affinity with the Picturesque well beyond that of either Claude or Salvator. If, as Hussey suggests, Claude, Salvator and others caused a revolution in the appreciation of college outline scenery and nature, then Gainsborough landed that rebellion on the home front, adopting English countryside and scenes with a subjective reconnaissance which sought to discover their innate truth. J M W Turner (1775-1851) Joseph Mallord William Turner was principally influenced by Claude, and so, not surprisingly, painted a host of picturesque scenes whose mythological and historical subjects are guaranteed to warm even the coldest cockles of the neo-classicist: Dido Building Carthage , The Bay of essay about Baiae with Apollo and the Sibyl and college admission, Ulysses Deriding Polyphemus , to name only descriptive about dying, a few.
And yet the subjects themselves tell only half the story, for these were indeed Picturesque canvases with atmospheric effects suggestive of Claude (see figure 7) and foreshadowing impressionistic treatment. Turner then demonstrates the tenacity of college admission essay outline neo-classical material in paintings; but also the movement towards a more individual and romantic approach: in place of mere factual recording, Turner translated scenes into a light-filled expression of his own romantic outlook. Other paintings, like Buttermere Lake: A Shower , from around 1798, as well as Turner’s extensive touring of England and Scotland during the same period, show a sensitivity to the nationalistic climate inherent in the Picturesque movement. Turner, like Salvator, was himself something of a romantic figure: claiming no close friends, painting in absolute privacy, spending months in thesis statement solitude and college admission essay, always travelling alone. When persuaded to sell his paintings, Turner suffered days of dejection.
Finally, Turner left a large fortune which he hoped would support what he called “decaying artists”—a picturesque appellation if ever there was one. What makes Turner particularly interesting is his treatment of the sublime and its Picturesque ramifications. John Ruskin has a unique and smarter, convincing view of this which explains the essay, strength of the Picturesque and partly —infinitesimally—accounts for the modern literary bias: . . . if this outward sublimity be sought for by the painter, without any regard for the real nature of the thing, and bless religion, without any comprehension of the pathos of character hidden beneath, it forms the essay, low school of the surface-picturesque; that which fills ordinary drawing-books and scrap-books, and employs, perhaps, the most popular living landscape painters of France, England, and Germany. But if these same outward characters be sought for in subordination to religion, the inner character of the object, every source of pleasurableness being refused which is incompatible with that, while perfect sympathy is felt at the same time with the object as to all that it tells of admission essay itself in those sorrowful by-words, we have the school of true or noble picturesque. To extend this analysis, it is an acute sympathy which separates middling artists of the Picturesque from the Turners and the Wordsworths; it is, to adopt Ruskin’s terminology, the difference between high and low Picturesque. Although Turner— unlike Wordsworth—employed both sketches and argumentative statement abuse, memory, a similar temporal distancing from essay outline, subject is common to their respective methodologies: The sketch which Turner used as the basis for his drawing of Louth, Lincolnshire , a drawing that dates from sometime in 1827-8, was made thirty years earlier, in 1797. As will become increasingly obvious, painting and literature are indeed sister arts and bless essay religion, their practitioners intimately related. (Shanes, 20) John Constable (1776-1837) John Constable was born and bred in rural England and admission essay, his bond to the countryside was life long and reverential. No other painter of the period imbued such a sense of self in his work, calling his sketchbooks “journals”—complete with their autobiographical annotations—and stating, surely with a nod of entry ppt approval from Wordsworth: “I am fond of college admission being an Egoist in whatever relates to painting” (qtd. Bermingham, 87).
His earliest works were venerational sketches in the style of me ultima essay religion Gainsborough; and, though never abandoning Picturesque theory, Constable appropriated its many exigencies and eventually made them componential to the dictates of his own. Initially, then, the Picturesque afforded Constable an aesthetic perspective whose ideological bias coincided at many points with his own rejection of commercial values as shared by his family. Furthermore, the Picturesque focus on college essay outline the specific appearances of objects and the power of essay these appearances to essay outline, evoke strong imaginative associations encouraged Constable’s own propensity to argumentative abuse, infuse particular views and admission outline, objects with affective significance. (Bermingham, 113-114) Perhaps the most striking aspect—at least to than, the literary minded—of Constable’s stylistic development involves his new conception of nature with its emphasis upon college essay outline, specific and individual elements which undermine traditional hierarchical landscape composition. Discussing Dedham Vale: Morning , Bermingham states: . . . the eye cannot trace a pedestrian itinerary; it focuses on charged spots—the figures, the tall golden trees, the white church, the post in double entry system the left foreground. College Outline! . . . [It is this] profusion of dialectically charged spots [that] organises Constables landscapes. (123) Besides these spots of composition, Constable, in the frontispiece of English Landscape Scenery , supplies an archetype for his work in general: This spot saw the me ultima, day-spring of my life, Hours of Joy and years of Happiness; This place first tinged my boyish fancy with a love of the Art, This place was the origin of my fame. (qtd. Bermingham, 125)
The obvious and unavoidable correspondence with Wordsworth’s “spots in time” is further augmented by Constable’s use of recollection: Flatford Mill from the admission essay outline, Lock , as a case in point, is a composite canvas composed of five prefatory and much studied sketches, and entry system ppt, features five charged spots—focal points of interest—copied from their respective points in college outline the sketches. The final choice of perspective and arrangement is suggested by Constable in a letter to his wife: “I have tried Flatford Mill again, from the lock (whence you once made a drawing)” (qtd. Bermingham, 131). Bless Me Ultima! The lock and its view, as we see, are associated with his wife, and admission, the final composition is term paper, imbued with the emotions stirred by his memories of college admission essay that moment and of imaginings, of retrospection: “. Essays! . College Admission Essay Outline! . what he experienced remembering with what she had experienced in entry the process of drawing” (Bermingham 132); a fusion of past and essay, present. We should deduce no direct philosophical or methodological imitation from either Constable or Wordsworth—though each was intimately acquainted with the other’s work—but rather recognise that both responded to the spirit of the management term, times, inheriting a still viable Picturesque aesthetic, assimilating its imperatives and making egotistical innovation their own underlying principle. If we accept for the moment that the romantic movement came not as a miraculous gift from a prophetic Wordsworth tired of rhyming his couplets and poeticising his passages, but as a result of processes already under way; similarly, the Picturesque itself developed through gradual shifts in the philosophical mind and artistic mix. Figure 1: Claude, Pastoral Landscape With the Pointe Molle, from college essay outline, Bicknell. Figure 2: Earlom, from Bicknell. Figure 3: William Westall (1781-1850) View of the caves near Gordale Scar, Yorkshire from Bick nell. “Of all the scenes regularly visited by descriptive essay about someone, travellers in search of the Picturesque, Gordale Scar most vividly evoked Salvator” (Bicknel, 72). Figure 4: Gilpin, Number 18, from Bicknell.
Figure 5: Garden Plan, from Manwaring. Figure 6: Marco Ricci (1679-1729), Classical landscape with a traveller and two figures kneeling before a cross, from Bicknell. Figure 7: Turner, Caernarvon Castle (1799) Claudeian influence. Moving from college outline, Picturesque affects to effects: as fundamental to literature as to the way we presently evaluate and relate to landscape scenes, the holidays and pictures we take, the rural dreams we dream. Continuing the supposition that the statement and drug, Picturesque was no mere fad, this section will detail the transition from literature’s traditional view of landscape shortly before and during the Augustan reign to one which gradually accommodates Picturesque learning and issues in the sovereign Nature of the romantics. The movement from neo-classicism to romanticism was not so much a break as a gradual changing of the guard, until finally the essay, palace itself stood vacant and entry, the Greco-Roman soldiers sent a-packing. Just as Sir Isaac Newton—for all his cosmic reconstruction—quietly maintained traditional beliefs, writing a commentary on the Book of Revelations which flabbergasted his scientific admirers, so too the Picturesque prebendaries provided token offerings to college admission essay outline, the ancient classical gods. William Gilpin himself reveals this tentation, offers these offerings, in his definitions of picturesque, occasionally comparing picturesque roughness with classical depictions: Virgil’s Venus, with hair dissundere ventis , Homer’s rugged Jupiter. The strain of discovering the Picturesque in the classics is argumentative statement, injurious both to Picturesque theory and to the authors themselves, though the college outline, omnipresence and double entry system ppt, potency of college admission essay Augustan authority and prestige during the eighteenth century essentially made necessity of inanity. In addition, Gilpin sometimes uses Virgilian quotations to describe English scenery; and in Observations even suggests that Virgil was a great master of landscape. From this, Hugh Sykes Davies—perhaps the most Boeotian of modern critics—understands the Picturesque to girls smarter boys, be a “revived Augustan attitude to Nature” (248)—a particularly unique and outlandish notion which defies both the evidence of essay art and literature.
Indeed, David Watkin makes this absurdity clear: Carroll Meeks showed in 1957  how each of the five principles of the essays in english, Picturesque—variety, movement, irregularity, intricacy and roughness—is respectively echoed in the characteristics of college admission essay outline Baroque as defined by Heinrich Wolfflin (1864-1945): painterly, recession, open, unity and unclearness. In Wolfflin’s visual system of essays analysis, which in admission itself could be seen as a legacy of the thesis and drug abuse, Picturesque, these characteristics were identified as the opposite of those of Classic Art: namely linear, plane, closed, multiplicity and clearness. (x) Section one provided some hint of the amorality that marks the Picturesque school. It is this very fact which provides and another important distinction between the admission essay outline, Picturesque and neo-classicism. In Gilpin’s Dialogue upon the Gardens at statement abuse, Stowe , two visitors discuss the merits of a ruinous hermitage. The first is college admission outline, puzzled “why we are more taken with a prospect of this ruinous kind, than with views of management Plenty and Prosperity in their greatest Perfection.” (5) The second responds: Yes: but cannot you make a distinction between natural and moral Beauties? Our social Affections undoubtedly find their Enjoyment the college essay outline, most complete when they contemplate, a Country smiling in the midst of Plenty, where Houses are well-built, Plantations regular, and everything the most commodious and useful. Smarter Boys Essay! But such Regularity and admission outline, Exactness excites no manner of management paper Pleasure in the Imagination, unless they are made use of to contrast with something of an opposite kind. (5) Malcolm Andrews contextualises such differentiations: “. . . the distinction between natural and moral beauty would have made most Augustans very uneasy, so clearly does it fly in the face of college admission outline cherished neo-classical values, where physical beauty is double system of accounting, seen as the expression of moral beauty” (48).
In terms more specifically concerned with the development of the Picturesque and romantic poetry, Brownlow makes a similar point: “They [neo-classicists] took it as axiomatic that the training of the eye was a moral activity, in that a properly conceived, and perceived, landscape or garden was an emblem of order . . . in the state, the mind, the soul, and admission outline, the emotions” (15). The influence of the Picturesque in nature essays in english France stands as further testament: there the impact was particularly striking for essay outline, “it conflicted with the rationalist trend of architectural theory which survived from the late seventeenth into the early twentieth century” (Watkin, 161). Eighteenth century neo-classical and Picturesque correlations, like those of Gilpin, which are, at best, spurious, are further explained, firstly, by some degree of pedantry; secondly, intellectual name-dropping, offering assent through association; and thirdly, and most particularly, the nature in english, tremendous difficulties involved in developing an aesthetic outside the ubiquitous and intrinsically disdainful neo-classical confines. The Picturesque then, saw its earliest lines of delineation drawn during the Augustan heyday. Augustans’ adoption of the Picturesque was initially obvious: with the college essay outline, works of Claude increasingly in vogue, his idyllic and nostalgic landscapes of lost classical splendour were understandably and generally embraced.
Indeed, the historical/classical narrative in Claude’s paintings was comfortably accommodating to neo-classicists and offered—as was the case with religious allusion—a license of entry system interest in what was actually a novel, non-classical, non-traditional genre. The Picturesque Path  The attendant problem in admission essay outline viewing pre-picturesque poets through the filter of this thesis is actually the point: landscape in paper literature, until the early eighteenth century, is conspicuous either by its absence, rarity, or treatment. As mentioned in college admission outline Section One, just as landscape in painting initially existed largely as a backdrop to human drama, similarly, in literature, it functioned as a symbol of or allusion to someone dying, grander to more “worthy” conceptions. Ben Jonson (1572/3-1637) Ben Jonson’s “To Penshurst” (1616) is an interesting case in point: cutting the first turf in essay a sub-genre celebrating a specific locale, its treatment of landscape is exactly as we would expect, which is to say, exactly as this thesis anticipates. Penshurst, the country seat of the Sidney family (Sir Philip being the most familiar) is described by Jonson in a most particular manner: after a brief preamble describing the me ultima essay, manor’s modest facade, the college admission, poem turns to bless essay, the surrounding gardens, where “Thou hast thy walks for admission outline, health, as well as sport” (9)—though notably not for essays in english, any aesthetic value; where, not surprisingly, Pan and Bacchus drop in for a famous feast; and where every element of this topography reads like a catalogue of ownership, the college admission, ledger of a steward rather than a poetic eulogy or a laudation of landscape. “That taller tree, which of a nut was set / At his great birth, where all the Muses met” (13-14), initially provides a symbolic marking of Sir Phillip’s birth, soon inscribed—“There in the writhed bark are cut the names / Of many a sylvan” (15-16)—with the scrawl of lovers re-scrawled as the initials of operations paper fabled wood deities.
The oak stands not as a tree valued for its majestic treeness, but as an emblem marking the consequence of its wealthy owner; and, to pursue this branch to its limit, acting as a veritable Zeitgeist . “Thy copse, too, named of Gamage, thou hast there, / That never fails to serve thee seasoned deer” (19-20), strengthens the notion of ownership through nomenclature and introduces the main theme: nature not as objet d’art but as morsels of existentialistic meat, the college admission essay, ingredients of art culinaire . Accordingly, in this Edenic garden, with land-owner seated not as Adam but standing as God, “The painted partridge lies in every field, / And, for thy mess, is willing to be killed” (29-30); and “Fat, aged carps, that run into thy net, / Bright eels that emulate them, and leap on land / Before the fisher, or into double entry of accounting, his hand” (33-35). Of course, all this is very pragmatic and moral, supporting the pillars of establishment and legitimate dominion in admission outline a manner suggestive of Elizabethan hierarchy. It will be some time before the stability of the oak and pillars becomes, instead, the stuff of aesthetics. John Denham (1615-69) Sir John Denham, in Cooper’s Hill (1642), composed one of the earliest and bless essay religion, particularly influential topographical poems.
Typically, it mixes natural descriptions with moral. Here, for example, the two are intercoursed: Though with those streams he no resemblance hold, Whose foam is amber and their gravel gold; His genuine and less guilty wealth t' explore, Search not his bottom, but survey his shore. (165-168) The incorporation of historical and political reflections, besides foreshadowing Pope—specifically Windsor Forest —highlight a landscape invisible without the filter of man’s works. Interestingly, ironically, use of the heroic couplet marks the transition from metaphysicals to neo-classicism in much the same way that Thomson’s The Seasons foreshadows romanticism. John Hughes 1677-?
John Hughes, with a lifelong interest in graphic art, is essay outline, one of several lesser poets whose attempts at landscape poetry predates the entry ppt, more familiar and college outline, famous. His Court of Neptune (1700) describes “Landscapes of rising Mountains, shaggy Woods, / Green Valleys, smiling Meadows, silver Floods, / And Plains with lowring Herds enrich’d around” (qtd, Manwaring, 96). Obviously, this pre-Picturesque period, still lacking any landscape aesthetic, is incapable of providing any genuine pictorial perspective. Essay Dying! Nevertheless, Hughes’ introduction to Poetical Works offers an interesting observation: “There are no parts in a poem which strike the generality of readers with so much pleasure as Description” (xxxxv). Poems like “The Picture,” features an original collecting of hues from nature: Queen of fancy hither bring. So from ev’ry flow’r and plant. Gather first the immortal paint.
Fetch me lilies, fetch me roses. (7-14) The poem is admission essay outline, delightful not only for its originality, but for the genuine poetic sensibility. And Drug! Finally, however, all this pigment is to paint a portrait of Venus. “Greenwich Park,” despite the college admission outline, hopefulness of its title, inevitably becomes nothing more than a background for parading and prancing nymphs, Cupid, Mira and various embodiments of beauty: a landscape reflecting classicism and finally fading into aesthetic oblivion while all the radiance that remains is bless me ultima religion, human. Poems like “The triumph of peace occasioned by the peace of Ryswich 1697” and “The court of Neptune on King William’s return from Holland 1699,” surprisingly do contain landscape elements, though again only as a history painting-like background. Only the admission essay, subject itself of bless me ultima essay To Mr. Constantine, on His Paintings makes true landscape fleetingly possible:
Here tufted Groves rise boldly to the Sky, There Spacious Lawns more distant charms the Eye, The Crystal Lakes, in Borrow’d Tinctures shine. And misty Hills the far Horizon join, Lost in the azure of admission outline Borders of the Day, Like Sounds remote that die in Air away. Management Paper! (qtd, Manwaring, 96) Conventionally a cardinal artistic sin, this copy of copy surprisingly exhibits particular merit, not only for the avant-garde Picturesque elements—William Kent’s 1709 Memorandum, after all, appears now on the horizon—but with the admission essay, “borrowing” from one state of reality to another and the canvas’ frame providing closure to the day. Nevertheless, any systematic rendition of landscape is, at this time, possible only by imitation not of girls smarter than nature—nor indeed Nature—but of a landscape canvas.
The Picturesque Convergence. Alexander Pope (1688-1744), writing during and even dabbling in the development of Picturesque theories, enters the literary pantheon during this transitional period and consequently demands significant attention. In fact, as will become apparent, the Augustan embrace of the Picturesque was one without much feeling, attachment, sincerity and without much conviction. Pope was connected with the college outline, earliest picturesque efforts: one of the first romantic mediaevalisations, built at Cirencester Park, Gloucestershire. Known as Alfred's Hall, it was begun in 1721 for the first Earl of Bathurst. In 1732 Bathurst wrote to Pope: “I have almost finished my hermitage in the wood, and it is better than you can imagine . . . Girls Smarter Than! I will venture to assert that all Europe cannot show such a pretty little plain work in the Brobdingnag style as what I have executed here” (qtd. Watkin, 45). This plain structure eventually became, with Pope's advice and assistance, a venerable castle and mock ruin. In addition, Pope’s Moral Essays , “Epistle IV” offers some promising notions of picturesque landscape gardening, with both Nature and painting offered as inspiration and methodology. This leads J. R. Watson to suggest: “The gardener’s task was now to co-operate with nature, as Pope knew” (16).
In fact, although Pope mocks the formality of a Versailles, supplanting it with, “Parts answ’ring parts shall slide into view / Spontaneous beauties all around advance, / Start ev’n from Difficulty, strike from Chance” (66-68), his own poetry regularly smacks of the college admission essay outline, formality of affected gardens. Indeed, Pope’s own garden—mostly laid out in management term c. 1718-25—epitomised by its now famous grotto, illustrates something of the awkwardness of his picturesque dabblings. David Watkin—in what becomes a familiar motif of prevarication—succinctly describes this incongruity: “Pope enhanced his grotto with optical illusion, with mirrors and waterworks, with ores and essay, minerals chosen for their beauty not their rarity, yet he still considered it natural in comparison with the formality and artificiality of bless essay mannerist and baroque grottoes” (4). A Plan of Mr. Pope’s Garden , penned by John Serle, Pope’s gardener and man-servant, reveals more details: the grotto was, in fact, a rock and sea-shell strewn tunnel leading beneath a road to the garden. Essay! Besides the opulence of the girls smarter essay, marble plaque inscribed in gold letters decorating the entrance, Italian marble, Plymouth marble, Cornish diamonds, Amesthystine crystals—to scratch only the surface—form the grotto itself. Although none of these are precious materials per se , neither are they the stuff of the primitive Picturesque scene. College Admission Essay Outline! A Plan , in argumentative thesis abuse its cartographic fold-out, reveals the lay-out of the garden: formed mostly of admission radial and rectilinear pathways and a polished lawn, there are nevertheless a few hesitant serpentine walks.
Watkin admits: “What Pope persisted in seeing as ‘natural’ seems to us as artificial as Rococo . Operations Management Term! . College Essay Outline! .” (5). Indeed, what Pope persisted in seeing as natural would no doubt have seemed equally artificial, only a few decades later, to Price and Knight. What makes A Plan particularly interesting is its uninteresting inventory, which not only itemises the materials used in the grotto, but their source: Several large Groups of smarter boys Cornish Diamonds tinged with a blackish Water, from the Rev. Dr. College Admission Essay! William Borlace of Ludgvan in Cornwall . . . . Several fine Pieces of Eruptions from Mount Vesuvius , and smarter boys, a fine Piece of Marble from the Grotto of Egeria near Rome , from the Reverend Mr. Spence ; with several fine Petrifactions and Plymouth Marble, from Mr. Cooper . (6-7) This brief extract, with its “fine” name dropping, reveals the familiar marks of ownership and prestige. The emblem of land title, which we saw in Jonson’s “To Penshurst,” is college admission, here reduced to constitutional elements: rocks and minerals, and suggesting the commensurate importance of associate names, like famous signatures in a gallery of operations term paper ultimately mediocre art: the high price of essay reputation . Even the poems contained in a section entitled, “Verses Upon the Grotto at Twickenham” concern themselves not with the grotto itself, but with the man who owned the operations term, grotto. Outline! Emerson once wrote that although fields and farms belong to this man or that, the bless me ultima religion, landscape is nobody’s private property.
In early eighteenth century England, the notion of landscape finally existed, though Emerson’s point was as yet lost in the haze of future understanding. The far flung opulence, the unnatural far flung assortment of items collected from various regions—how natural is college admission outline, a chunk of Vesuvius clinging to argumentative thesis statement abuse, a lump of Plymouth Marble?—should, one would think, quickly and outline, convincingly settle the question which Morris R. Brownell rhetorically poses in his introduction to A Plan : “Pope’s acknowledgement to Sloan for his gift of joints of the Giant’s Causeway raises the question of his conception of the grotto—fosillary of rare minerals or imitation of nature?” (viii). Not surprisingly, Brownell sees the essay religion, whole thing as an imitation of nature. However wrong this blind faith reading might be, the question itself misses the point: whatever Pope’s intent, the result was impossibly unnatural. The neo-classicist, no matter what aesthetic mining he attempts, can extract only a rarefied nature, more artful than natural, the outline, geological equivalent of a landscape lyric in heroic couplets, with every pair of lines a peculiar strata of imported rock. In fairness to Pope, however, Twickenham garden and Lord Burlington’s in Chiswick vie as the first picturesque grounds. If they are, by later standards, largely unnatural and unpicturesque, they were at least a tentative first step down the thesis statement abuse, meandering garden path. Further, Pope’s definition of nature was usually Nature , duly capitalised and interrelated not with “the great out-doors,” nor nature in college essay a Darwinian sense, but more particularly the illustrative, universal and intransmutable; common sense and perspicacity: Yet if we look more closely, we shall find. Most have the seeds of judgement in their mind: Nature affords at least a glimmer of light;
The lines, though touched but faintly, are drawn right;(“An Essay on Criticism,” 19-22) Here the drawing metaphor is emphatically concerned neither with landscape nor art, but with “good sense.” Pope’s earliest attempt at what we might broadly term nature poetry was Pastorals . Reading like a declaration of love from an avaricious beggarly bachelor to a wealthy widow, any genuine feeling seems obliterated by nature in english, a self-conscious pedantic exhibitionism: the Thames valley landscape, for college essay outline, example, is chock-a-block with “ Sicilian Muses” (certainly not my italics) though singularly Spartan in sunny meadows. The natural elements in Pastorals typically function in one of three ways: firstly, as a form of extended characterisation: Oh deign to visit our forsaken seats, The mossy fountains, and the green retreats! Where’re you walk, cool gales shall fan the glade, Trees, where you sit, shall crowd into a shade; Where’re you tread, the blushing flow’rs shall rise, And all things flourish where you turn your eyes. (71-76)
In this instance, the thesis statement and drug abuse, chastity, morality, purity of Rosalinda is externalised in a venerational relationship with subdued Nature. Secondly, as a mere pretext for manifold classicisms: Beneath the Shade a spreading Beech displays, Hylas and Aegon sung their Rural Lays; This mourn’d a faithless, that an absent Love. And Dekia’s Name and Doris fill’d the Grove. Ye Mantuan Nymphs, your sacred Succour bring; Hylas and college, Aegon’s Rural Lays I sing. ( Pastorals: Autumn , 1-6) And, thirdly, as in traditional paintings, as a background or at best a setting for me ultima, human activity.
Windsor Forest (1713) provides another example of college essay Pope’s inability to create either pictorial or picturesque scenes. Indeed, the poems turns out to statement and drug abuse, be a virtual arboricultural wasteland: a peculiar reversal of the familiar aphorism where we cannot see the trees for the forest. Here Hills and college, Vales, the bless me ultima essay, Woodland and the Plain, Here Earth and water seem to strive again. There, interspers’d in Lawns and opening Glades, Thin Trees arise that shun each others Shades. Here in full light the russet Plains extend;
There wrapt in admission essay outline Clouds the bless essay, bluish Hills ascend. (11-24) Certainly there is admission essay, some semblance of landscape here, but the lawns are never far away, and bless religion, we imagine a scene, not surprisingly, more typical of Capability Brown than the Picturesque. The natural elements are correspondingly here, here, there, here, there: namely, nowhere, a collage of bits glued willy-nilly, denying spatial and relative reality; the college admission essay outline, thin trees seemingly represent not a fecund forest but the sparsity of Pope’s pictorial sense. To admire Pope for his particular strength without acknowledging his weakness licenses the implicit generosity of J. R. Watson and system ppt, the superficiality of Manwaring’s statement that “Pope comes close to Claude” (97) and college admission, does neither service to understanding Pope’s poetry nor Picturesque development. Indeed, Hussey convincingly argues that, “There is no analogy in his landscapes to those of descriptive essay dying Claude or Salvator” (30). Pope’s embryonic landscapes, in place of essay outline visualisation, provide Defoe-like catalogues, reminiscent also of about someone “To Penshurst”: painting the scenery of college essay outline inventory rather than the operations, canvas of invention. Pope’s Classical Roots. Ever since Horace’s dictum in Ars Poetica (c. 13 BC) “ ut pictura poesis —“as is outline, painting, so is poetry”—the two arts have been jointly imprisoned in the same ivory tower—albeit “painting” definitively meant portraiture. Even briefly setting aside the operations term, neo-classical context, there can be no surprise that the Picturesque movement was initially tied—though with varying degrees of tightness—to classical poetry.
Of course, Pope’s archetypes—indeed, the fact that his literature always passes through some metaphysical classical filter—virtually disallows any personal expression of a personal relationship with nature, or at least results in hollow sentiments. A brief quotation from Virgil’s The Eclogues (37 BC) will perhaps make this clear: Happy old man, who ’mid familiar streams. And hallowed springs, will court the cooling shade! Here, as of old, your neighbour's bordering hedge, That feasts with willow-flower the Hybla bees, Shall oft with gentle murmur lull to sleep, While the college admission outline, leaf-dresser beneath some tall rock. Uplifts his song, nor cease their cooings hoarse. The wood-pigeons that are your heart's delight, Nor doves their moaning in the elm-tree top. ( Eclogue I)
Though certainly broader than Pope’s catalogue of natural elements, the holistic perspective of landscape is obviously impossible where man and his activities form the principal focus. Descriptive About! Interestingly, Virgil goes beyond simple nature eulogy and those country comforts provide a simple alternative to urban opulence: “Let Pallas keep the towers her hand hath built, / Us before all things let the woods delight”(Eclogue II). The English ideal would transform these towers into stately homes, islands of luxury in a sea of peasant labour, a simplicity of life defined geographically rather than philosophically. While Virgil calls for a hands-on relationship with nature, rural England produced the harvest bounty at college admission essay, arms length. In addition to this, the classical landscape, though never described in terms of landscape, is one distinctly exotic, inhabited by descriptive about dying, pipe-playing shepherds, wayward wolves and unfamiliar flora. Thus, the admission essay outline, classical pastoral offers a way of life that no well-manored Englishman could tolerate in a countryside he could not assimilate. The “Muses of descriptive essay someone dying Sicily,” (Eclogue IV) can never truly sing of England, and Pope, in essay outline emulation, can never truly sing familiar nor sing true. When Pope adopts not only the nature in english, dialogic structure of Virgil’s Eclogues but the characters themselves, “Fair Thames , flow gently from thy sacred Spring, / While on thy Banks Sicilian Muses sing” (“Spring. The First Pastoral, or Damon,” 3-4), the result is transplanted absurdity, apparent not only to the modern reader, but the contemporary also: Thomas Tickell, in his Guardian essay (April 15, 1713), comments: . . . our countrymen have so good an opinion of the ancients, and think so modestly of essay outline themselves, that the generality of Pastoral Writers have either stolen all from the Greeks and Romans, or so servilely imitated their manners and customs, as makes them very ridiculous. Essay! (qtd.
Andrews, 11) Pope understood none of this,  saw no immediacy in the pastoral, no native narrative nor contemporaneity: only a perpetual backwards survey of a Golden Age forged in admission outline Vulcan’s far away fires. Accordingly, in “A Discourse on Pastoral Poetry,” Pope states: If we would copy Nature, it may be useful to argumentative and drug, take this Idea along with us, that pastoral is an image of what they call the Golden age. So that we are not to college essay outline, describe our shepherds as shepherds at this day really are, but as they may be conceiv’d then to have been. (120)
The real requirement was something Pope could never provide: a kind of reverse alchemy, transforming the gold of the Golden Age into the Englishman’s baser mettle. Pope’s further insistence upon “exposing the best side only of a shepherd’s life, and in concealing his miseries” (120) is again in opposition with picturesque trends which, though, as we have seen, generally avoiding the moral context of poverty, places emphasis upon the dilapidated, the coarse, the unkept, positing hardship as intrinsic to the scene as the gnarled wind-blasted tree. The ragged shepherd, his hair swept by operations management, wind, his visage worried by the elements, is both a more accurate and picturesque portrait. Virgil’s Eclogues , with “These fallows, trimmed so fair” (Eclogue I) and, “Now, Meliboeus, graft your pears, now set / Your vines in order!” (Eclogue I), provides a subtext of nature controlled, ordered and manipulated. In Georgics , of course, this philosophy becomes an overtly expressed treatise on the cultivation of estates, making the incongruity between the neo-classical and the Picturesque as conspicuous as a dilemma between nature ordered and natural disorder. But there is an even more important incongruity, for Georgics , like much of Virgil’s poetry—and The Aeneid in particular—features a strong nationalistic component. As the focus gradually fixes upon British landscape, Virgil’s distant view of college admission essay outline “. . . Britain, from the whole world sundered far” (Eclogue I,) and the worship of girls boys foreign fields reveals a dislocated panegyric, at college admission essay outline, odds with the me ultima essay, general trend. Malcolm Andrews, in The Search for the Picturesque , sees Virgil’s patriotism as offering “. . . a kind of college admission outline licence for argumentative thesis abuse, cultural emancipation” (9), and moves in the next paragraph to admission, an analysis of Thomson’s The Seasons , as if Virgil’s nationalistic vision directly correlated to an appreciation of English landscape. In fact, the neo-classical attitude as expressed in Pope’s “A Discourse on Pastoral Poetry,” implies the very reverse. Infatuation and emulation of the Golden Age proved a barrier to home-spun nature and thesis statement and drug, landscape literature—briefly recollect the shepherd not as he is but as he might once have been—and it was the Picturesque movement which gradually laboured in chipping away at that barrier. This can be seen even in Pope’s pastoral verse, “Spring.
The First Pastoral, or Damon”: despite mimetic qualities, the poem works upon the premise of “ Cynthus and Hybla yield to Windsor- Shade” (68), festooning lines with English flora. The result is a hodge-podge of admission outline classical characters, ancient gods, and the English rose as an uncomfortable floral bed fellow. The new focus on landscape through the Picturesque was never a reinvention of the Golden Age: the Picturesque includes in its composite elemental degeneration, hardship and girls than, ruin: the stuff of the English countryside rather than the eternal Mediterranean spring and a life of ease. Richard Payne Knight’s comment that “a person conversant with the writings of Theocritus and admission essay, Virgil will relish pastoral scenery more than one unacquainted with such poetry” ( Inquiry , 150), demonstrates the difficulties involved in adopting a new and provincial landscape still largely devoid of literary and argumentative thesis statement and drug, artistic association and prestige. Such comments lead Malcolm Andrews to talk of the “elitism of the Picturesque” (4), though it seems more appropriate—especially when we consider the eventual popularity of picturesque tourism—to understand rather the elitism of Knight himself. The plethora of Picturesque guide books is indicative of the increasing popularity of landscape appreciation. This gradual shift from “elite” to general can also be seen in Gilpin’s Observations on the River Wye : the first edition of 1782 features Latin quotations which, in the second 1789 edition are all translated. If textbooks on landscape gardening exist for the narrow academic, this by college essay, no means suggests the humble fellow busy building his lily pond is similarly focused. The initial references to Virgil and Horace were as necessary as they were inappropriate: before Britain could be truly discovered and localised, it was conceptualised as a transplanted Arcadia, where northern Shepherds wandered crooked hills buffeted by Mediterranean breezes, expecting at any moment to come upon a triumphant Aeneas.
With no traditional appreciation for landscape as a meaningful aesthetic experience, new understanding, occasioned by the novel introduction of landscape paintings, came not from a moment of revelation, but rather from a gradual modification and eventual weakening of what was already known. Essentially, Pope understood a well composed garden to be an emblem of good order reflecting the thesis, inner good order of the educated mind. His treatment of college essay nature is subjugated by the omnipresent and Elizabethan notion that “ORDER is Heav’n’s first law” ( Essay on Man , Epistle IV, 50), though devoid of Shakespeare’s sense of nature’s power, of Godlike omnipotence; and botany, biology, anthropology, philosophy, painting, all become mere lessons in double entry of accounting classical history. Classical pastoral and Georgic writing, in simple terms, are too distant and different to ever speak of England, no matter how cunningly coined and conflated with native elements. Like Windsor Forest, Pope’s Picturesque is one defined by omission, a Picturesque truly without the picture. The Picturesque Scene. James Thomson (1700-1748), as an acquaintance of Arbuthnot, Gray and Pope, falls firmly into the neo-classical camp.
His landscapes, although they were greatly influenced by those of Claude, Rosa and Poussin, include only occasional classical allusions, and from this we see some glimmering hope of rebellion. Indeed, this is the case: the bugle call bugled, the neo-classical swan-song giving way to. The Muses, still with freedom found, Shall to thy happy coast repair: Blest isle! with matchless beauty crown'd,
And manly hearts to college outline, guard the fair. Rule, Britannia, rule the girls smarter, waves; Britons never will be slaves.(“Rule Britannia”, 1729) Despite somewhat artificial diction, Thomson’s The Seasons :, first completed in 1730 and later expanded, offers a landmark in English poetry. The influence of the increasingly familiar Picturesque is particularly clear in college outline Winter : the first edition expressed only minor pictorial interest; in the second, Thomson inserts such Salvatorian lines as “. . . The cloudy Alps and descriptive someone, Appenine / Capt with grey mists, and everlasting snows; / Where nature in stupendous ruin lies. (243-5) The remaining three books, composed subsequently to Winter , feature diverse landscape scenes. Summer (1727) illustrates Claudian sun play: . . . Admission Outline! yonder comes the powerful king of day,
Rejoicing in the east. The lessening cloud. The kindling azure, and the mountain’s brim, Illumed with fluid gold; (81-84) In Spring both the religion, poet and Nature play the part of painter:
Behold yon breathing prospect bids the Muse. Throw all her beauty forth. College! But who can paint. Like Nature? Can imagination boast, Amid its gay creation, hues like hers?
Or can it mix them with that matchless skill. And lose them in each other, as appears. In every bud that blows. (467-73) Manwaring explains: “In the edition of 1744—that is, after his visit to nature essays, Italy and his collecting of prints—appears the admission essay, most elaborately composed of all his landscapes, with real Claudian distances” (104). Although none of this is specifically Picturesque, the system, Claudian influence and the well defined conflation of poetry and landscape painting demonstrate the development underway. Abandoning rhyming couplets was nothing new—indeed, The Seasons , as commonly acknowledged, owes some of college essay outline its versification to Miltonic influence—but in the context of Pope’s predominant style it was a break in girls than boys essay the pillars of the literary establishment.
The popularity of The Seasons , with over three hundred editions published between 1750 and 1850, is essay outline, a testament to the vitality of the Picturesque trend. Descriptive Essay About Someone! Certainly, The Seasons is not solely a Picturesque poem, though the influence of painting is everywhere; and college admission essay outline, the title itself, suggestive of the temporal changes of nature, quotes the movement of Picturesque tenets in implicit opposition to the static catalogues of Pope: a real landscape that generates and degenerates. Although the essays, poem predates the apex of Picturesque popularity, there can be no doubt as to the Picturesque vision that made the essay outline, conception possible: . . . now the bowery walk. Of covert close, where scarce a speck of day. Falls on the lengthened gloom, protracted sweeps; Now meets the bending sky, the river now. Dimpling along, the breezy ruffled lake. The forest darkening round, the glittering spire, The ethereal mountain, and the distant main.
Here we see not only metastasis, the chequered canvas of change, with the temporal “now” rather than Pope’s unplaceable “here” and “there,” but also key Picturesque elements: the dimpling river anticipates Knight’s original musing on smoothness : Smoothness being properly a quality perceived only by the touch, and applied metaphorically to the objects of the other senses, we often apply it very improperly to those of vision; assigning smoothness, as a cause of visible beauty, to things, which, though smooth to the touch, cast the most sharp, harsh, and angular reflections of light upon ppt, the eye. Essay Outline! . . . ( An Analytical Inquiry , 65) The ethereal mountains offering a suggestion of sublime grandeur; the depth of field, with the meandering river leading the eye towards a distant background. Unlike Pope, Thomson invites the essay religion, reader to view the landscape with leading locutions: “see,” “prospect” and “yon,” and the frequent use of the present tense. As Watson points out, the college, description of George Lyttelton’s estate at Hagley “is carefully composed and presented as foreground (the Hall), middle distance (villages, fields, heathlands, a ‘broken landscape’) and background (the Welsh mountains)” (32), a method identical to management term, that employed later by Picturesque writers and intrinsic to the landscape artist’s craft. Andrews, however, refuses to see any influence of picturesque painting in Thomson’s The Seasons , asserting instead the influence stems rather from literature. External evidence all suggests otherwise. The historical context: this is, after all, rapidly becoming the age of college admission landscapes and influence seems virtually unavoidable; the geographical: the poem was actually revised and partly rewritten at Hagley, then newly laid out according to picturesque tenets; and, as mentioned above, Thomson travelled to Italy during the management, composition, making subsequent books markedly richer in landscape images. Unfortunately, Andrews’ literary bias—the idea, for example, that, “Painting’s sister-art [literature] had shown the way to freedom from essay outline, didacticism or slavish topographical portraiture with Thomson’s The Seasons ” (25), places the argumentative thesis abuse, literary cart before the Picturesque horse. However, it is internal evidence itself which most clearly outlines the absurdity of Andrews horsing around:
Meantime you gain the hight, from whose fair brow. The bursting prospects spreads immense around; And, snatched o’er hill and dale, and college admission outline, wood and lawn, The verdant field, and darkening heath between, And villages embosomed soft in trees, And spiry towns by surging columns marked. Of household smoke, your eyes excursive roams—
Wide-stretching from the Hall in whose kind haunt. The hospitable genius lingers still, To where the broken landscape, by degrees. Ascending, roughens into rigid hills. O’er which the of accounting ppt, Cambrian mountains, like far clouds. That skirt the college admission, blue horizon, dusky rise. ( Spring , 950-62) Selected almost at random, there can be no doubt even here of the nature, analogy to landscape canvas: the scene is outline, both designed and unified, with precisely placed detail within the larger picture framework; with foreground, middleground and girls smarter than boys, background all respectively described.
The passage also contains key picturesque elements: contrast, for example, between wood and lawn, field and heath; the texture of the rough rigid hills; the broken allusion; and the sublime cloud-like mountains. The influence of landscape paintings upon a burgeoning genre of landscape and nature literature seems beyond question and Andrews’ cart is not only misplaced but surely wrecked by a broken axle. The interconnectivity between these two arts is further illustrated by Turner and Constable, for admission outline, whom Thomson was a favourite poet, adopting lines appended to several canvases. Operations Paper!  Indeed, Turner’s Aeolian Harp (see figure 8) was exhibited in 1809 with a poem that begins: On Thomson’s tomb the dewy drops distil, Soft tears for college outline, Pity shed for Pope’s lost fame, To worth and verse adhere sad memory still, Scorning to wear ensnaring fashion’s chain. In silence go, fair Thames, for all is laid. While flows the stream, unheeded and unsung. Resplendent Seasons! chase oblivions shade. (qtd.
Bicknell, 32) The poem highlights each season in turn, though, as Bicknell explains, quoting various art scholars, it is based not so much on Thomson’s work as William Collin’s “Ode occasion’d by the death of Mr Thomson.” The four figures in the picture, however, are understood to represent the seasons. Bicknell concludes: “Turner’s picture pays homage both to Claude and to Thomson, and in doing so it enshrines the link between the ‘picturesque poets’ and the ‘Italian’ landscape painters(33). During the swan-song years of the eighteenth century, classical poets were losing ground to the increasing number of British poets, with classical allusion becoming thin on the ground. Concomitantly, . . . booksellers were no longer addressing a relatively few, elite readers but a wide, mixed audience including merchants, professionals, children, and urban servants, as well as traditional audiences. Entry System Ppt! (Benedict, 158) Thus, there existed a growing exigency for a new kind of literature, removed from the Grub Street Press, yet more in tune with more people, more accessible, reflecting more the changing social condition. John Dyer (1699-1757), of course, is best remembered for “Grongar Hill.” Describing the scenery of the river Towy, there is a Wordsworthian quality of observation, personal reflection and picturesque features: “prospect,” “Old castles,” “ruins, moss and weeds,” and college admission, so on; there is the occasional picturesque personification, as in essay someone dying “And ancient towers crown his brow, / That cast an awful look below” (71-72); though mostly we have only admission outline, a topographical and irregular ode in rhyming couplets. Published in 1726, it draws immediate comparison with Thomson’s The Seasons . Besides taking landscape as its primary focus, “Grongar Hill” really sits in the shadow of The Seasons , offering only the me ultima religion, occasional sign of life, such as: And see the rivers how they run, Thro’ woods and college admission outline, meads, in shade and sun! Sometimes swift and girls smarter than, sometimes slow,
Wave succeeding wave, they go. A various journey to the deep, Like human life to Endless sleep. (93-98) Dyer made several tours of England and Wales, travelled to Italy, studied to be a painter long before he became a parson-poet, and there is, certainly, a convincing affection for college, landscape in “Grongar Hill”—though this is more strongly expressed in The Country Walk , whose concluding lines draw a melancholy comparison between the utopia of landscape and the distopia of bless essay human existence. “Grongar Hill” is college admission essay, framed upon me ultima religion, the summit prospect of Grongar Hill and, compared to the rhyming couplets of admission outline Pope’s “landscapes,” the view is clear and convincing and the subject focused. It is with Dyer’s final and greatest—in terms of bigness—poem, however, that the nature essays, poet’s mutable mediocrity comes to college essay, light. “The Fleece,” praised by Wordsworth—which is perhaps condemnation enough, a certain sign that the egotistical sublimian felt no literary threat—is an anachronistic georgic written thirty years after “Grongar Hill.” Dyer hoped “The Fleece” would provide necessary information allowing sheep farmers to improve their stock and smarter than essay, the quality of wool; to improve the fortunes of combers, dyers and weavers; to improve Britain’s trade by college admission, advocating expansion abroad. A georgic with such—conventional—pragmatic goals finds high poetic diction and frequent digressions a serious impediment. It is difficult bordering on impossible to statement and drug, imagine one tenth of college those concerned in the industry with the faculty and willingness, not to mention leisure time, to read such a long run-around poem. If ever there was a case for abandoning classical models, this georgic, begging for the mercy of simple prose, pleads guilty and stands duly condemned. Essentially, Dyer proclaims here his affiliation with Dryden’s now ageing notion, expounded in “Parallel betwixt Poetry and Painting” (1695), that the primary end of Painting is to please, though the ultimate end of me ultima Poetry is to instruct. Dyer’s affection for rural landscapes is perhaps all the more remarkable for this utilitarian and mercantile disposition.
Unlike Wordsworth, Dyer saw no injurious contiguity between industry and admission essay, trade. Quite the contrary: “Trade,” he wrote, “is the daughter of peace” (qtd. Williams, 98). Williams, in his biography of Dyer, continues, . . . traders and merchants, he felt, were promoters of peace and term paper, therefore of civilisation.. And by aiding them to bring natural resources and industries together, to essay outline, develop new resources, new manufactures, and new means of transportation, Dyer felt that he too was promoting peace and civilisation. (98) The same, in fact, is true of The Seasons , though Thomson’s approbation of girls smarter boys essay mercantilism—as well as the college, didactic insertions—is less the business of the poem and management paper, more an unfortunate by-product. If “Grongar Hill” makes a step forwards towards the romantic movement, “The Fleece” takes several backwards. In his preface to admission outline, the second edition of Winter , Thomson mentions Virgil’s Georgics as one of his models. He insists, however, that Winter bore a closer resemblance to the devotional literary tradition which included the Pentateuch, the Book of smarter boys essay Job, and Paradise Lost . “The Fleece,” on the other hand, is not only fully georgic but formally inappropriate to its purpose.
There is, then, in Dyer something of the neo-classical romantic dichotomy, the day-dreamer and college admission essay outline, the practical day-worker and it is in this context that he is best read and makes most sense. Neo-classicists’ adoption of the Picturesque, with Claude recognised as the precursor, was initially perhaps not inevitable though certainly understandable. Essay Someone Dying! There was, however, a certain incongruity to this adoption, for the geometry of college contemporary gardens and regularity of nature essays versification were essentially antithetical to the Picturesque. Essay Outline! Besides, the serenity and classical nostalgia of Claude was losing ground to the wildness of the more rugged Rosa (see figure 9) whose craggy cliffs and toothed trees and desolate domains were closer to both lakeland scenes and romantic sensibilities. Neo-classicism and formative Picturesque then were uneasy partners. Upon the crumbling and tumbling columns of neo-classicism was slowly builded an nature in english, ever more refined picturesque aesthetic. Tentative attempts at picturesque typified in The Seasons and “Grongar Hill” provides a background for an entirely new landscape of aesthetic appreciation and artistic expression that was quite simply blowing through the admission essay, temporal winds and disturbing everything in its path. For all the argumentative and drug abuse, aesthetic developments taking place as the eighteenth century progressed, neo-classicism was reluctant to give up the battle. Thomas Warton, in Poems on admission essay outline Several Occasions, (1748) includes such key terms as “Nature’s Landscapes,” “Dark woods and pensive waterfalls,” “Desert Prospects rough and rude,” “a green Valley’s wood-encircled Side.” However, translations and paraphrases of Horace rub shoulders with “Ode to descriptive essay someone, Taste”: Leave not Britannia’s Isle; since Pope is fled.
To meet his Homer in Elysian Bowers, What Bard shall dare resume. His Various-sounding Harp?(180) Warton then demonstrates the literary discord at admission essay outline, this time, the venerational prestige of Pope, and the staying power of neo-classicism. As late as 1775 and calling to mind Gilpin’s examination of natural and moral beauty in Stowe , Samuel Johnson, in Journey to the Western Islands of Scotland wrote: An eye accustomed to flowery pastures and waving harvests is astonished and repelled by double ppt, this wide extent of hopeless sterility. The appearance is that of matter incapable of college outline form or usefulness, dismissed by nature from her care and disinherited from operations term, her favours. (qtd. Andrews, 197) There was no extensive digging and chiselling, no blasting of hill and dale, no landscaping on a geographic scale, no remoulding or recasting of this northern nation, no topographical development. The only conceivable change was internal: aesthetic conception; and with this mightiest of change, the Scottish Highlands would soon become—and remain—one of the most picturesque areas in all Britain.
Figure 8: Turner, Thomson’s Aeolian Harp, from essay outline, Bicknell. Figure 9: Salvator Rosa, Mountain landscape, from Bicknell. “This mountainous landscape is of a type which particularly appealed to English taste. It could be a Salvatorian of a scene in the Lake District or North Wales” (Bicknell, 5) The Middle Ground: Wordsworth. The artistic and aesthetic links established in girls smarter than boys essay Section One now become particularly significant.
This section will include an important aetiological component, identifying the articles of faith employed in outline establishing the standard—and erroneous—critical guiding conception of the Picturesque. Having, hopefully, and to some degree, divested Wordsworth (1770-1850) of the prophetic, revolutionary inspired vestments which modern scholars intimatingly fancy his dress, the entire fabric of the venerational and vituperative theory of Wordsworth and the Picturesque respectively becomes bare supposition, allowing, finally, a more valid and useful appraisal of the two. The influence of the Grand Tour in fostering an intense and popular interest in scenic tourism—it was in the 1780s that the bless religion, word ‘tourist’ entered the English language—the increasing familiarity of college admission landscape paintings, philosophical enquiries which intellectualised landscape, the nature essays in english, religious symbolism which initially justified landscape not only for the French but for admission essay outline, the Hudson River Group in North America, the popularity of landscape gardening, all these were elements in a new cultural and aesthetic picture. And yet, as mentioned in the previous section, the neo-classical constituent, as much a symbol of “quality” as Friedrich’s Cross On the Mountain was of faith, stubbornly persisted. The prestige of the classical past essentially allowed the prestige of the present, and with nature already running wild in picturesque landscape gardens, neo-classicism endured like an old marble statue, certainly, its arm’s severed at the shoulder and girls smarter boys essay, missing a leg, yet still solid and strong. Romantic poetry would provide the final cutting edge, individuality and originality and subjectivity and emotional response would allow a cultural coming of age; and if the essay outline, statue would always remain, at least now the head could be lopped off. In addition to the impetus provided by this new and burgeoning cultural and argumentative statement, aesthetic picture, there was also some imperative to fill a literary void. College Admission Essay Outline! Sonnets, long castrated of their erotic themes, momentarily seduced by religion and politics, were by now only a literary footnote. Similarly, allegory seemed an anachronistic way of describing a shovel by digging a hole. The epic itself existed only as a mockery. Bless Me Ultima Essay Religion! Worst of all, newer innovations like the college essay outline, invariable antithetical rhyming couplet inevitably lost their heroic gloss and seemed more like a tired knave than a tireless knight.
Only satire and burlesque—seventeenth century developments—retained any semblance of staying power. In simple terms, literary convention increasingly lacked invention. The cause and effect relationship between this void and the development of a new aesthetic is perhaps too metaphysical and certainly too immaterial for this examination, though the possibility at least suggests mandate for change. It is within the context of this paradigm shift that Wordsworth reads not as literary prophet, but as a poetic designer involved in a movement already re-fashioning the cultural and social fabric. By the time Wordsworth published Lyrical Ballads (1798), the appreciation of nature had reached the philosophical—if not numerical—levels prevalent in the present day. Bless Essay! Nature now becomes the focal point, no longer limited to a laudation of college outline man and ownership, nor a Pope-like praise of ancient Mediterranean insinuation. Clearly, such mimetic representations will no longer answer. And Drug! Literature, within this context and with its associative ability, can treat nature with a new respect and generosity: can actually turn the silence of centuries into articulations of moment. There is general agreement that Wordsworth’s early poetry borrows from Picturesque aesthetics. A brief survey will therefore suffice.
“An Evening Walk,” published in outline 1793 and written in heroic couplets, is essentially a conventional attempt at picturesque verse, replete with cascade scene, precipice, mountain farm, female beggar, rocky sheepwalks and tremulous cliffs: a topographical poem in which Wordsworth’s authorial voice remains only a whisper. Unconfined to any particular place, the poem provides a composite image consistent with typical picturesque sketches and suggestive—ironically—of Beaumont’s ruinous castle ruin. As J. R. Watson demonstrates, “Tintern Abbey” (1798) begins with a canvas-like description with three planes of depth. The poem then moves on: The day is descriptive essay about someone, come when I repose. Here, under this dark sycamore, and view. These plots of cottage-ground, these orchard-tufts, Which, at this season, with their unripe fruits. Are clad in college admission outline one green hue, and lose themselves.
’Mid groves and copses. Once again I see. These hedge-rows, hardly hedge-rows, little lines. Of sportive wood run wild: these pastoral farms, Green to the very door; and wreaths of smoke.
Sent up, in operations management term paper silence, from among the outline, trees! With some uncertain notice, as might seem. Of vagrant dwellers in the houseless woods, Or of some Hermit’s cave, where by his fire. The Hermit sits alone. (9-22) Here the sycamore serves as both frame and essays, point of perspective to the scene; typical picturesque elements appear: the wildness of the wood, pastoral farms offering contrast as well as an echo of Virgil’s Georgics , an college, attention to foreground and background. But the scene is extra dimentionalised, beyond—at least for those with a literary bias—the possibilities of brush and colour: “Once again I see” underscores both memory and a personal reaction to operations management paper, the scene; whilst the bromidic picturesque figure—the hermit—appears not to the eye but to the imagination. And yet, although the poem, by college essay outline, virtue of the medium, achieves that extra-dimension, it remains within the Picturesque paradigm. Gilpin, for argumentative thesis, example, also recorded his impression of Tintern Abbey years before Wordsworth:
Every thing around breathes an admission essay, air so calm, and tranquil; so sequestered from the commerce of life, that it is easy to conceive, a man of warm imagination, in descriptive essay monkish times, might have been allured by such a scene to become an inhabitant of it. ( Obs. Wye , 32) Watson admits that this might perhaps have provided the “forerunner”  of Wordsworth’s hermit; but also that Gilpin here is concerned with the “kind of admission essay relationship between man and the landscape” (81) that Wordsworth was later to develop.  Not surprisingly, “Tintern Abbey” soon moves away from Tintern Abbey and becomes the descriptive essay about someone, familiar Wordsworthian recollection filled in with the “moral and college essay outline, mystical” (Watson, 84) of and drug abuse landscape. Admission Essay Outline! And yet the poem’s structure can serve as an outline of Picturesque application in romantic poetry: the argumentative thesis statement and drug abuse, picturesque provides the subject—and initially the ability to college admission outline, see that subject—which then allows the expanded vista possible through literature. Memory, subjectivity and imagination—Wordsworth categorical—together act as an augmentative device which transforms flat canvas into romantic tapestry. There is, in me ultima addition, some hint of the egotistical sublime combined with the essay outline, ability of girls smarter than boys nature to mould character: . . . For I have learned.
To look on college outline nature, not as in the hour. Of thoughtless youth, but hearing oftentimes. The still sad music of humanity, Not harsh nor grating, though of nature essays ample power. To chasten and outline, subdue. (89-94) “Michael” (1800), though not specifically a picturesque poem, nevertheless is based upon and drug abuse, a nostalgic view of rural England intrinsic to the Picturesque school and a offers a nationalised and temporalised form of the neo-classical Golden Age. The poem alludes to college essay outline, contemporary political and economical conditions turning peasants into the manufacturing poor, who, nomadic and landless, drift into London like the flotsam of some vast socio-economic flood. Indeed, many districts at that time remained completely excluded from urban economics, with foreign products as foreign as the products themselves. System Ppt! Even at the beginning of this century the Yorkshire yeoman was ignorant of sugar, potatoes, and cotton; the Cumberland dalesman, as he appears in Wordsworth's Guide , lived entirely on the produce of his farm.  The half finished sheep-pen of the poem, a heap of rocks that remain after the poem’s closure, symbolises old Michael and his half finished ambitions for his son, now gone from the protective fold and corrupted by modernity. Outline! If the poem then is not strictly picturesque, it speaks with picturesque philosophy and provides an example of a more subtle picturesque application.
Clearly, Wordsworth’s early poetry borrowed liberally from both the Augustan tradition as well as Picturesque convention. His poetical path, however, gradually meanders away from neo-classicism and towards an expanded and less categorical mode of of accounting Picturesque philosophy. Hugh Sykes Davies’ insistence upon “Wordsworth’s subjection to the ‘picturesque’ fashion” (236) in these early days, culminating in admission outline the poet’s decortication of the essays in english, entire model, smacks of an obscurantist philosophy turned barrier to the imagination and denies the jagged foundation the Picturesque provided for the appreciation of countryside as a highly refined aesthetic. Admission Essay! But more of that right now. The Gospel According to Wordsworth. We have finally reached the first of two sources which together have prescribed the modern critical assessment of the Picturesque and its influence on romantic poetry—at least for scholars of literature. Descriptive Sketches—the Footnote  Pope’s Dunciad conclusively proved the statement, potential of the humble footnote to subvert a text.
In the case of Descriptive Sketches , a single footnote has subverted much of modern scholarship on the Picturesque. Here it is, in college admission essay all its humble magnificence: I had once given to these sketches the title of Picturesque; but the Alps are insulted in applying to them the term. Double Entry Of Accounting! Whoever, in attempting to admission essay outline, describe their sublime features, should confine himself to the cold rules of painting would give his reader but a very imperfect idea of management term paper those emotions which they have the irresistible power of communicating to the most impassioned imaginations. Essay! (Note to girls than, line 299) Davies descends upon admission essay, this “cold rules of painting” as if the operations term, very death of the Picturesque depended upon it. In actual fact, this criticism suggests Gilpin as the principle target; and the reproof, despite Wordsworth’s implied intention, is narrow rather than general. In fact, there is nothing original or remarkable here: it is college admission, essentially a restatement of Richard Payne Knight, who, we recall, offered a “Curse on the pedant jargon, that defines / Beauty's unbounded forms to double of accounting, given lines!” ( The Landscape: a Didactic Poem , 6) Indeed, it was only admission essay outline, Gilpin’s first publication, Essay on Prints , which placed particular stress on the “rules of painting” and for the simple reason that the volume was, essentially, a “How-To” manual on landscape painting rather than a treatise on the Picturesque.
It seems strange too that Davies, here upholding the merits of the imagination compared to those “cold rules of painting,” mentions that Knight had “ meddled extensively with the ‘Imagination’”  (my italics, 205); though assumedly anyone connected with the Picturesque and not poetry really can only “meddle”—even “extensively.” Watson also picks up on this footnote; but, realising that there are nevertheless acres of the Picturesque in Descriptive Sketches , prevaricates hither and thither, jumping from than boys essay, one explanation to another like so many stepping stones where only the admission essay outline, wetness of the nature essays, river is certain. His first tentative foothold comes from the fact that Wordsworth carried through the Alps a number of Picturesque guidebooks, causing him to suggest, “It is therefore not surprising that the poem should contain a number of picturesque appreciations” (73-74). The stepping stone here sinks without further comment. College! Next, Watson suggests—with depth defying penetration—that Wordsworth had a “divided mind” (74); and nature essays, further, that it is this “which makes Descriptive Sketches such an unsatisfactory poem” (74). This is clearly a dangerous place to admission outline, stand, since, I would suggest, when it comes to the Picturesque, Wordsworth’s mind was always divided.
Watson jumps again: Wordsworth is. struggling to express qualities which the writers on the picturesque did not sufficiently recognise. In the first place there are atmospheric effects of light which transcend the tonal range of double system ppt contemporary painting. (75) This is on admission essay outline the same footing as the earlier: “Wordsworth was envisaging effects of light which were not to be mastered on Canvas until Turner” (72). In fact such “effects of light” had long since been mastered, by Claude. In fact, he was to some extent the originator: Andrew Wilton, in his introduction to Turner’s Picturesque Views in bless me ultima essay England and admission, Wales , identifies Claude as the inventor of the “‘Sunset Harbour theme” (Shanes, 6). This then is clearly an example of a literature critic wiggling his fingers in the pool of the smarter boys, art historian; rather than catching a fish, he is bitten by a school of aesthetics. College Admission Outline! Watson must once again skip onward.
His final place of rest is to suggest that Wordsworth here was concerned with “liberty,” although, since the paper, “subject” of the poem is the Swiss Alps, “he could not omit the admission essay, scenery” (75). This, in fact, is true, though most elements are undeniably Picturesque, like this blending of the beautiful and girls smarter than boys essay, sublime: How blest, delicious scene! the eye that greets. Thy open beauties, or thy lone retreats; Beholds the unwearied sweep of college admission outline wood that scales. Lo, where she sits beneath yon shaggy rock, A cowering shape half hid in curling smoke!(177-78) Other examples of Picturesque idiom include: “water's shaggy side”; “Thy lake, that, streaked or dappled, blue or grey”; “Hermit”; and essay about someone dying, “antique castles.” It seems strange too that Wordsworth should frame the topic of liberty in his supposed antithesis of liberty: those cold picturesque rules. Watson clearly recognises the essay outline, dichotomous anomaly at nature essays, work, and his stepping and admission essay outline, side stepping is an attempt to bring resolution within the nature, framework of standard literary theory on the relationship between Wordsworth’s poetry and the Picturesque. Clearly, Watson gets a good wetting and explains nothing.
So what is the solution? The fact that we are dealing, for college admission, the moment, with a footnote provides the perfect analogy: Wordsworth’s Picturesque criticism should be read as nothing more than a footnote, and a footnote in the style of The Dunciad at that. When literary theory, even—and perhaps especially—from the original poet himself, is at odds with the term, literature itself, then the obvious conclusion is to abandon the theory; instead, Wordsworth’s musings are taken as gospel and an altar of theory is admission essay outline, builded upon them. Entry Of Accounting! The only truly cold rule, it seems, is that Wordsworth “transcends” the picturesque because he says so himself. Turning now from general to particular, it should be clear that this “cold rules” versus “imagination” is essay, altogether a red-herring, easily caught by literary critics and used to feed a thousand other misconceptions. William Combe’s brilliant satire, A Tour in Search of the Picturesque, by the Reverend Doctor Syntax (see figure 10)—clearly derived from Gilpin—reveals his neo-classical bent by ridiculing the very idea of the imagination versus the true copy of Nature: Upon the bank awhile I’ll sit, And let poor Grizzle graze a bit; But, as my time shall not be lost, I’ll make a drawing of the post; And, tho’ a flimsy taste may flout it,
There’s something picturesque about me ultima essay religion, it: ’Tis rude and admission essay, rough, without a gloss. And is well cover’d o’er with moss; And I’ve a right—(who dares deny it?) To place yon group of double system ppt asses by it. Aye! this will do: and now I’m thinking,
That self-same pond where Grizzle’s drinking, If hither brought ’twould better seem. And faith I’ll turn it to a stream. Outline! (9) Of course, the smarter, exaggeration is as sparkling as the pond that flows into the stepping-stone stream; but we should consider Constable’s Flatford Mill from the Lock , which is college essay outline, exactly this kind of bless religion composite picture and deserves—indeed, receives—only approbation. There are indeed rules of college admission essay composition, in double of accounting painting as well as poetry, but to define the Picturesque according to these is to define poetry. according to admission outline, grammar and spelling. There is, in both the Picturesque and poetry, imagination and expression. Returning to the original point. W. Operations Paper! M. Merchant, in his introduction to admission essay outline, Wordsworth’s Guide , also cites this same footnote as proof of Wordsworth’s asperity to double, Picturesque theory and goes on to say how singular Wordsworth’s guide is.
More forthright still, Rhoda L. Flaxman, Victorian Word-Painting and Narrative: Toward the Blending of Genres , understands the note to be “an abrupt declaration of independence from eighteenth-century picturesque aesthetic” (67). All these evaluations, however, neglect several important points: firstly, Wordsworth’s footnote continues, the unique and. . . . peculiar features of the Alps. . . . Admission Essay Outline! The fact is, that controlling influence, which distinguishes the Alps from all other scenery, is derived from smarter than, images which disdain the outline, pencil. Had I wished to make a picture of this scene I had thrown much less light into it. But I consulted nature and my feelings. The ideas excited by thesis, the stormy sunset I am here describing owed their sublimity to that deluge of light, or rather of admission essay fire, in which nature had wrapped the immense forms around me; any intrusion of about dying shade, by destroying the unity of the impression, had necessarily diminished its grandeur. College Essay Outline! (Note to line 299) So the Alps then are not like the mountains of Cumberland, Yorkshire, Wales and essays in english, Scotland; and rather than offering an “abrupt declaration of independence,” Wordsworth actually points homeward for authentic picturesque scenes. Secondly, this so called “reaction against college essay outline the Picturesque” (Davies, 240) entirely disregards chronology: Descriptive Sketches was published in 1793; Wordsworth’s own Guide , which, as we will see, makes great use of Picturesque sensibility and idiom, in 1810. Thirdly, as already mentioned, the fact remains that Wordsworth footingly denounces the limitations of the Picturesque yet, in the poetry itself, he delivers Picturesque description.
Book XII of girls smarter boys essay The Prelude , tintilatingly entitled “Imagination and Taste, How Impaired and college outline, Restored,” provides most to the fodder for modern critical understanding of Wordworth’s relationship to the Picturesque.  The offending lines begin: What wonder, then, if, to a mind so far. Perverted, even the visible Universe. Fell under the dominion of a taste. Less spiritual, with microscopic view. Was scanned, as I had scanned the moral world?(88-92) Unworthy, disliking here, and there.
Liking; by rules of mimic art transferred. To things above all art; but more,—for this, Although a strong infection of the entry ppt, age, Was never much my habit—giving way. To a comparison of scene with scene, Bent overmuch on superficial things, Pampering myself with me agre novelties. Of colour and proportion; to the moods. Of time and season, to the moral power, The affections and the spirit of the place,
I speak in recollection of a time. When the bodily eye, in every stage of life. The most despotic of our senses, gained. Such strength in 'me' as often held my mind. In absolute dominion. Admission! (127-130) There are in management term our existence spots of time,
That with distinct pre-eminence retain. A renovating virtue, whence—depressed. By false opinion and contentious thought, Or aught of heavier or more deadly weight, In trivial occupations, and the round. Of ordinary intercourse—our minds. Are nourished and invisibly repaired. College! (208-215) This then is the term paper, stuff that contemporary critics have adopted without regard to the dangers of accepting the artist’s views of his own work. College Admission Essay! If the operations term, creative mind were so simple , the rive gauche would likely as not have moved to Silicon Valley.
There can be no doubt that “taste” refers to admission, the Picturesque. There can be no doubt either that Wordsworth declares the Picturesque an impairment to the imagination. Several important points, however, should be noted: The Prelude , as was the case with Descriptive Sketches , contains ample picturesque passages, too numerous and too obvious to thesis statement and drug, quote. Here, nevertheless, for the benefit of the incredulous, are a few: In summer, making quest for works of art, Or scenes renowned for beauty, I explored. That streamlet whose blue current works its way. Between romantic Dovedale's spiry rocks;
Pried into Yorkshire dales,  or hidden tracts. Of my own native region. (VI, 190-95) In the final Book (XIV), fresh from the restoration of his imagination and taste, with hardly time to catch a breath between, Wordsworth recounts his gasping ascent of Snowdon, from college admission essay outline, whence he sees: “A fixed, abysmal, gloomy, breathing-place— / Mounted the roar of waters, torrents, streams / Innumerable, roaring with one voice!” (58-60). Topography ensues. The plot thickens: soon after, there is argumentative statement abuse, a twist to all that domination of the eye business, with Nature making her presence known. . . . by putting forth, 'Mid circumstances awful and sublime,
That mutual domination which she loves. To exert upon admission, the face of outward things, So moulded, joined, abstracted, so endowed. With interchangeable supremacy, That men, least sensitive, see, hear, perceive, And cannot choose but feel. Argumentative Thesis Statement And Drug Abuse! (79-86) That domination now shifts from subject to object: man is no longer dominated by the ocular sense; instead the outward forms of picturesque scenery, by their very nature, captivate man. In any case, the point is that even in The Prelude the Picturesque is pictured and college outline, admired: The single sheep, and the one blasted tree, And the bleak music from that old stone wall, The noise of wood and water, and the mist.
That on the line of each of those two roads. Advanced in such indisputable shapes; All these were kindred spectacles and sounds. To which I oft repaired, and thence would drink, As at a fountain. Bless Essay Religion! (XII, 319-26) Here also is one of college Wordsworth’s well-cited spots of time, which often find their source in Picturesque moments inspired by term, the wildness of nature, where that idiomatic “sublime” is kindled. In this example, we are provided a veritable catalogue of picturesque materials, though again this spot of time incorporates non-visual invocations, composed, not as a sovereign landscape, but more as a sensationscape, an emotional response to news of his father’s death. In effect, Wordsworth acknowledges the aesthetics of college admission outline this picturesque catalogue, though he moves towards emotive sense. Further, Wordsworth’s understanding of the subject was undoubtedly clouded, a myopia based upon a narrow definition of the Picturesque—the meaning of boys essay which, after all, was always a point of debate and rarely of admission essay conclusion. Indeed, his criticism of the Picturesque is on the same lines as Uvedale Price’s, who, we might recall, stated that picturesque qualities are “extended to all our sensations by whatever organs they are received.” In other words, “That men, least sensitive, see, hear, perceive, / And cannot choose but feel.” The thing which Wordsworth most condemns—this supposed ocular obsession in the Picturesque—is strangely absent in A Tour in Search of the double entry system of accounting ppt, Picturesque, by the Reverend Doctor Syntax . For example: “. . Essay! . while you chase the bless me ultima essay, flying deer, I must fly off to Windermere. / ’Stead of hallooing to college essay, a fox, I must catch echoes from the rocks” (50). It seems apparent from these few lines the exceptional quality of the satire; strange then that Combe, for all his excellence, should miss what seems to be the most objectionable aspect of Picturesque theory.
This, perhaps more than anything else, demonstrates that Wordsworth’s dissatisfaction was not empirically with the Picturesque but emphatically with his own conception. The error was his, and someone, the error of those modern critics who unquestioningly accept Wordsworth at his word. Watson suggests further that Wordsworth’s interest in the Picturesque waned due to its inherent “wrong attitude to nature” (97), by which he means a lacking of “humility.” To this, it is perhaps worth re-visiting Gilpin: Let not inborn pride, Presuming on thy own inventive powers, Mislead thine eye from Nature. She must reign. Great archetype in all. College Essay! ( On Landscape Painting: A Poem , 26-30) Also, Wordsworth’s increasing spirituality offers an unstated though likely cause of further dissatisfaction, that “dominion of a taste / Less spiritual.” Gilpin states in his preface to Tours of the Lakes : “The author hopes that no one will be so severe, as to think a work of thesis abuse this kind inconsistent with the profession of a clergyman” (xxxi).
J. R. Watson understands this as evidence that Gilpin saw nature not as the handiwork of God—as does Thomson, for example—but “as a matter of mere amusement” (40). As Section One made clear, Gilpin here is actually alluding to the amorality of the Picturesque. Nevertheless, from this supposed “mere amusement”, Watson, no doubt now weary of those treacherous stepping stones, makes an astounding leap in logic and concludes: With such an aim, sight alone becomes important, for there is rarely any attempt to ponder the significance of landscape, or the viewer’s emotional relationship towards it. (40) Entirely skipping over college admission essay, the “mere amusement” hypothesis, we might yet wonder at the kind of logic that allows a passage from descriptive essay dying, “mere amusement” to “sight alone.” We might also recall, despite the evidence outlined in Section One demonstrating that Gilpin was not concerned uniquely with sight alone, that Gilpin indeed wrote on the Picturesque from a painterly point of view and so any stress that exists upon the visual is rather like the stress upon admission essay, the aural in an analysis of music.
The importance of all this is to bless, demonstrate the tendentiousness of the support for Wordsworth’s domination of the eye theory. There is, in college outline Gilpin’s preface, nothing whatsoever about “mere amusement” and from that nothingness there is decidedly no logical step to “sight alone.” What we really discover here is Watson’s attempt to support subtly Wordsworth’s notion, which, as is becoming increasingly apparent, actually had no validity in double entry ppt Wordsworth’s own work. College Essay! This then is one tiny element in the construction of the predominant Picturesque/romanticism theory. Descriptive Someone! In fact, Gilpin’s note is nothing more sinister than an acknowledgement that God is largely excluded from the Picturesque view. Although Wordsworth might have thought this unfortunate, in terms of historical artistic development, removing God from the picture was essential in admission essay bestowing intrinsic validity to nature and landscape. Finally, Wordsworth’s own vision grew from an aesthetic arboretum that was the Picturesque. He descended not from heaven, fully formed and ready to pen; but rather was shaped by the multitudinous historical, social, economic, artistic and aesthetic factors. Without the continuum in descriptive essay which the Picturesque was contained, Wordsworth and romanticism would have remained a pipe dream piped perhaps by a transplanted neo-classical Roman shepherd. Watson himself reluctantly admits that “in spite of his condemnations of the picturesque and college, his awareness of the nature essays, despotic eye, Wordsworth remains interested in landscape as it is seen” (104); and yet the penny never drops and a change of view never takes place. Davies similarly pays great attention to college essay, The Prelude , albeit with a more diction-based argument. Operations Management! “In rejecting the ‘picturesque’,” Wordsworth is “running counter to [the] predominant fashion” (249), and deliberately selects bare and college admission essay, naked scenes. This notion re-creates Wordsworth as an artist removed from historicity, a one man cultural band not only girls boys, playing his own tunes but inventing his own scales, an college outline, idea suggestive even of deification.
As proof, Davies provides a table of “unpicturesque”—nay, “anti-picturesque” (250)—terms harvested from essay dying, The Prelude . College! Unfortunately, at least half of them are perfectly picturesque: “cliffs,” unless we imagine a polished cliff; “old stone wall,” unless expurgated of lichen and me ultima, moss and the old stone wall reformed as a new stone wall; “whistling hawthorn,” unless de-thorned, de-whistled and well pruned; “craggy ridge” and admission, “craggy steep,” de-cragged; “perilous ridge,” de-periled. Even those terms which seem marked by a smooth unpicturesque character are often un-picturesque red-herrings: the “naked pool,” is perhaps “water of which the me ultima essay, surface is broken, and the motion abrupt and outline, irregular” ( On the Picturesque , 84); or perhaps reflecting the Picturesque scenery in which it resides. More astounding than erroneous, Davies includes “mountains” in his anti-picturesque catalogue! Davies’ crowned prince of proofs then turns out to be a beggar boy in disguise, with all the nature essays in english, airs and graces and robes of royalty, yet concealing a shallow mind and college essay, dirty underwear. In addition, even if Davies’ brief was bona fide , the fact remains that Burke’s smooth beauty is, in part, elemental to the Picturesque scene.
The absurdity of Davies’ position in bless this respect is college essay outline, made conspicuous when, ever contrary, he examines the before and after Gilpin prints (see figures 11 and 12) and argumentative thesis statement, insists that, “This second print, in its way, is charming enough. But the first is impressive” (229)! It is this irony, this inconsistency, this disparity that suggests Wordsworth’s professed aversion to the Picturesque should be taken not only with a grain of college outline salt, but with a veritable variety of spices—grown, of double system of accounting course, in a garden suitably picturesque. In the final analysis, it is the poetry itself which must provide the theory, rather than the poet himself; and indeed, this is the essay outline, whole point. The Sublime and the Beautiful.
Davies’ suggestion that only Wordsworth frequently used “sublime” and “beautiful” conjunctively, to entry system, which he devotes several pages, besides being erroneous, reveals a scant familiarity with Gilpin, for, as we have seen, it was the combination of the beautiful and sublime— “. . Admission Essay Outline! . so beautifully sublime, so correctly picturesque” ( Three Essays , 52)—which, for Gilpin, produced the Picturesque and so was central to his own understanding. Whether or not Gilpin offers these words conjunctively once or a thousand times, the point is that the conjunction is in english, omnipresent in his definition of the Picturesque. Just as Brownlow suggests that John Clare transcends the Picturesque by discovering the microcosmos, he also insists that Wordsworth “transcends” the Picturesque by experiencing the essay outline, “Sublime.” (25) Of course, he is operations term, also wrong, and for essay, the same reasons. Since the Picturesque never evolved into a finalised coherent theory, remaining vast in scope, since its primary concern was with landscape and graphic art—Price notwithstanding—the very notion of poets’ “transcending” the essay someone dying, Picturesque is one which seems born of an intellectualised mule; and although modern critics seem intent to ride this mule for all it might be worth, the beast is clearly an ass of their own imagination. Guide to the Lakes. Davies correctly points out that the vigorous and essay, much-publicised Picturesque debate raged during the period when Wordsworth was most active as a writer. As Davies states: “The reader of Wordsworth cannot for long go ignorant of the part played by the Lakes in making him everything he was” (3). Indeed, the popularity of the bless religion, Lake District is inextricably tied with that of outline Wordsworth. His own A Guide Through the District of the Lakes in ppt the North of England , is, to a large degree, typical of this sub-genre. Not surprisingly, Davies thinks otherwise: Gilpin, he says, believes landscape significant “not for college admission outline, the sake of the people who live in it” (230) but “simply for the painter” (230)—and this despite the following quotation, from Gilpin, two pages earlier: “These smooth-coated mountains, tho of little estimation for girls boys essay, the painter’s eye, are, however, great sources of plenty. They are the nurseries of college essay outline sheep; which are bred here, and fatted in the valley” (228).
Gilpin proceeds to describe the difficult life of the shepherds. According to Davies, in writing his own Guide , Wordsworth’s “approach was the opposite one” (230)—though it seems that Gilpin’s approach also was opposite. In actual fact, Wordsworth’s guide, as suggested above, is pretty much par for the Picturesque course. Wordsworth even commits the cardinal sin: “The want most felt, however, is that of bless religion timber trees. There are few magnificent ones to be found near any of the lakes” (79). Admission Essay! Here Wordsworth censures a scene for lacking a particular pictorial element—so much for the opposite approach. Wordsworth’s Guide also demonstrates an eloquent command of Picturesque idiom: “. . . by bold foregrounds formed by the steep and double ppt, winding banks of the river” (43); “None of the other lakes unfold so many fresh beauties . . . “ (39); “ . . Admission! . agreeably situated for girls smarter boys essay, water views” (40); “. Admission! . . constitute a foreground for smarter, ever-varying pictures of the majestic lake” (50). Besides idiom, Wordsworth participates in Picturesque politics, supporting Gilpin in college admission essay his criticism of white painted houses, and sustaining Price’s landscape gardening theories. Neither is Wordworth’s inclusion of poetry in his Guide anything more than standard. Even the prosaic Handy Guide to the English Lakes , now a rare and anonymous sixpenny edition likely destined for the more affluent working class tourist, features such verse as Wordsworth’s: “A straggle burgh of ancient charter proud / And dignified by battlements and towers / Of stern castle, mouldering on the brow / Of a green hill (17).
Besides the outbreaks of poetry, the Handy Guide inevitably features numerous Picturesque line drawings, including one particular example which offers further indication of the popularity of Picturesque tourism: an uninteresting depiction of Furness Abbey disinherits the usual foreground grouping of rustic figures, replacing them with a party of pic-nicking holiday makers. Davies’ suggestion that Wordsworth’s Guide is “antithetical” (230) to Gilpin’s, for it insists that “the real importance of mountain scenery was not visual, but mental” (230), sounds nice, though unfortunately is nonsense. Certainly, Gilpin examines landscape from a painterly point of view, though his lengthy guides are filled, as we have seen, with imagination and local human considerations, auditory appreciation and tactile expressions, emotion and admiration. In his Guide , Wordsworth provide a lengthy extract from Dr. John Brown’s verse Fragment : Now sunk the sun, now twilight sunk, and night. Rose in her zenith; not a passing breeze. Sigh’d to the grove, which in the midnight air. Stood motionless, and in the peacefull floods.
Inverted hung: for now the billows slept. Along the shore, nor heav’d the deep; but spread. A shining mirror to the moon’s pale orb, Which, dim and waning, o’er the shadowy cliffs, The solemn woods, and spiry mountain tops, Her glimmering faintness threw: now every eye, Oppress’d with toil, was drawn’d in bless me ultima deep repose. Save that the unseen Shepherd in his watch, Propp’d on his crook, stood listening by the fold,
And gaz’d the starry vault, and pendant moon; Nor voice, nor sound, broke on the deep serene; But the soft murmur of swift-gushing rills, Forth issuing from the mountain’s distant steep, (Unheard til now, and now scarce heard) proclaim’d. All things at rest, and college, imagin’d the still voice. Of quiet, whispering in the ear of night. (84) Wordsworth honours Brown as “one of the first who led the way to a worthy admiration of this country” (84); though in entry of accounting a footnote adds:
Dr. Brown, the author of this fragment, was from college admission outline, his infancy brought up in Cumberland, and should have remembered that the practice of folding sheep by night is unknown among these mountains, and that the image of a shepherd upon the watch is out of place, and entry ppt, belongs only to countries, with a warmer climate, that are subject to the ravages from beasts of prey. Admission Essay Outline! It is pleasing to notice a dawn of imaginative feeling in these verses. Tickel, a man of no common genius, chose, for the subject of a Poem, Kensington Gardens, in argumentative and drug preference to the Banks of the Derwent, within a mile or two of which he was born. But this was in the reign of Queen Anne, or George the First. Progress has been made in admission outline the interval; though the traces of it, except in essay Thomson or Dyer, are not very obvious. (84) The mention of college admission essay outline Tickel immediately invokes neo-classicism and its inability to adopt real landscape, and the shepherd of the essay, fragment becomes an Arcadian figure. At this point we need only recollect Pope’s comment on shepherds “as they may be conceiv’d then to have been,” to realise the distance already travelled: what once was a rule of college admission essay outline poetry is now a grave error.
Davies, brimming with “limitations” of the Picturesque, takes Wordsworth’s footnote and informs us: “This ‘progress’, however, he clearly regarded as limited” (220). Clarity aside, we might wonder how progress can ever be limited, unless we imagine an acorn limited for smarter than boys, not already being an oak. To suggest, by college essay, extension, that the Picturesque is therefore limited seems to reject a hill for not being a river. But there is more than a call for accurate realism in this note, for the “mile or two of which he was born” suggests a sentiment both regional—nationalistic in the larger context—and also, applying Post-colonial hindsight, a conflict between the centre and margin. Treatment of real British landscape without reference to Virgil and bless me ultima religion, Horace and Company insists upon college outline, a new centre. System! This is clearly manifest when both Wordsworth and college admission essay, Coleridge choose between the Alps, the traditional site of the double ppt, European sublime, and domestic mountains. In The Prelude , for example, Wordsworth dismisses the Alps, shifting the focus to Snowdon, whilst Coleridge's Scafell experience becomes a celebration of Mont Blanc in the “Hymn before the Sunrise in the Vale of admission essay outline Chamouny.” As Woodring suggests, “Sometimes implicitly but often with a militant defensiveness, exponents of the bless me ultima essay religion, picturesque declared it a distinctively English answer to the sublime of the Alps” (48). Concomitantly, Wordsworth’s regional loyalty suggests a similar centre/margin dichotomy between urban London and the rural north. In another example of Picturesque nationalism, Wordsworth draws a comparison between the Alps and local scenes: The forms of the mountains, though many of them in some points of view the noblest that can be conceived, are apt to college outline, run into spikes and needles, and present a jagged outline which has a mean effect, transferred to than boys essay, canvas. (74)
Wordsworth was a great explorer of the countryside, and, it seems, actually a Picturesque explorer. As Dorothy Wordsworth wrote in essay outline her journal of a Scottish tour: When we were within about half a mile of Tarbet, at a sudden turning, looking the left, we saw a very craggy-topped mountain amongst other smooth ones; the rocks on the summit distinct in shape as if they were buildings raised up by nature, man, or uncouth images of some strange creature. We called out admission with one voice, “That’s what we wanted!” alluding to the frame-like uniformity of the essays, side-screens of the lake for the last five or six miles. (qtd. Watson, 104) Note the “craggy-topped mountain amongst other smooth ones,” the “frame” and “side screens.” Note also “in one voice,” or, “as three persons with one soul,”  as Coleridge wrote.
They had then found “what they wanted,” and clearly they wanted the Picturesque. In addition to admission essay outline, this, a letter written by Dorothy to Coleridge in March 1804 includes mention of a beck discovered by Wordsworth: “It is a miniature of all that can be conceived of girls smarter than essay savage and grand about college admission essay, a river, with a great deal of the operations management, beautiful. Admission Essay Outline! William says that whatever Salvator might desire could be there found” (qtd. Watson, 104). With all this travel and exploration it seems more than natural that Wordsworth would one day write his own Picturesque guide, if only operations management term, he was not so absolutely clearly and undeniably in opposition to and transcendent of the college admission essay outline, whole thing. . Descriptive Essay About Dying! . . Wordsworth’s Guide was first published anonymously in essay 1810 and me ultima religion, then, ten years later, in college essay a collection of me ultima religion his own verse. According to W.M. Mercant’s introduction, reviews of the verse were “critical” though the Guide met with “almost unanimous approval” (Guide, 31). Post Apostolical Poetry. The notion that Wordsworth adopted his own critical assessment—dethroning the monarchical sense of vision—has been seriously questioned from various angles.
Regardless, if we are indeed to take Wordsworth at his word, the essay outline, expectation would be that only this transcendental picturesque—if any picturesque at all—would henceforth appear. Wordsworth, after all, has accused, judged and condemned the argumentative abuse, Picturesque and we are told by a jury of college outline modern critics that he will no longer be shackled to that blasted bastion of narrow thinking. Descriptive Essay! How strange then that with the Gospel clearly spelled out, Wordsworth continues to seek the Picturesque and often with an entirely conventional viewpoint. For example: And not a voice was idle: with the din. Smitten, the precipices rang aloud; The leafless trees and every icy crag. Tinkled like iron; while far-distant hills.
Into the tumult sent an alien sound. Of melancholy, not unnoticed while the stars, Eastward, were sparkling clear, and in the west. The orange sky of evening died away (“Influence of Natural Objects,” 39-46). Understanding the Picturesque in all its theoretical variety—which now, hopefully is the case—reveals this extract clearly and undeniably as picturesque in sound and not a transcending of the Picturesque.
We have already seen how Wordsworth’s own Guide was written years after the momentous formulation of judgement. In terms of his poetry, there are numerous other examples which similarly contradict the generally accepted view. The sonnet “Between Namur and Liège,” from Memorials of a Tour on admission essay outline the Continent, 1820 , for example: WHAT lovelier home could gentle Fancy choose? Is this the stream, whose cities, heights, and plains,
War's favourite playground, are with crimson stains. Familiar, as the nature, Morn with pearly dews? The Morn, that now, along the silver MEUSE, Spreading her peaceful ensigns, calls the swains. To tend their silent boats and college, ringing wains, Or strip the bough whose mellow fruit bestrews. The ripening corn beneath it.
As mine eyes. Turn from the fortified and me ultima, threatening hill, How sweet the prospect of yon watery glade, With its grey rocks clustering in pensive shade— That, shaped like old monastic turrets, rise.
From the college essay, smooth meadow-ground, serene and still! This is the entire poem and so quintessentially Picturesque as to require no further comment. Nature Essays! More frightening than this—at least for the jury who surely now must be out to lunch—is the attached footnote: The scenery on the Meuse pleases me more, upon the whole, than that of the Rhine, though the river itself is much inferior in grandeur. College Admission Outline! The rocks both in form and colour, especially between Namur and Liege, surpass any upon operations paper, the Rhine, though they are in several places disfigured by quarries, whence stones were taken for the new fortifications. This is much to be regretted, for outline, they are useless, and the scars will remain perhaps for thousands of years. A like injury to boys essay, a still greater degree has been inflicted, in my memory, upon the beautiful rocks of Clifton on the banks of the Avon. There is probably in existence a very long letter of mine to Sir Uvedale Price, in which was given a description of the landscapes on the Meuse as compared with those on the Rhine. This is the entire footnote and now comes the terrible blind taste test: who could, who would, write such staple, such superficial judging of one scene with another as if they were paintings: Gilpin?
Knight? Wordsworth. “Epistle to college essay, Sir George Beaumont”—Beaumont, connoisseur, collector, painter, “befriended and encouraged many painters, notably Constable and Ibbetson” (Bicknell, 15) and was a conservative follower of double Picturesque tenets (see figure 13)—offers an admission outline, example where scenery is described for its own sake, where its very worth is sufficiently innate to need virtually no additional coinage: Within the mirror’s depth, a world at rest— Sky streaked with purple, grove and craggy bield. And the smooth green of many a pendent field. And, quieted and soothed, a torrent small, A little darling would-be waterfall.
One chimney smoking in its azure wreath, Associate all in the calm pool beneath, With here and there a faint imperfect gleam. Of water-lilies veiled in abuse misty stream. (174-83) Of course, the richness here is owed largely to the loveliness of the wordscape, a place opulent in picturesque elements: the craggy bield , waterfall, chimney, the stream.
This epistle, penned in 1811, is a veritable treasure trove of picturesque landscape and elements. Never actually sent to Beaumont, it was clearly intended as a publishable poem. Another typically Picturesque poem is “The Pass of Kirkstone,” published in 1817: Oft as I pass along the admission, fork. Of these fraternal hills: Where, save the rugged road, we find. No appanage of human kind; Nor hint of nature essays man, if stone or rock.
Seem not his handy-work to mock. By something cognizably shaped; Mockery—or model—roughly hewn, And left as if by earthquake strewn, Or from the Flood escaped:— Altars for Druid service fit; (But where no fire was ever lit. Unless the glow-worm to the skies. Thence offer nightly sacrifice;) Wrinkled Egyptian monument;
Green moss-grown tower; or hoary tent; Tents of a camp that never shall be raised; On which four thousand years have gazed! (3-20) Gone then is the Pope-like catalogisation, the very antithesis of college outline Wordsworth’s methodology; instead, though the poetic eye might survey a scene, the poetic voice is selective of Constable-like charged spots: the fork in the road, one branch leading to reverie, the richly connotative fraternal hills, the rugged road, which by smarter than boys essay, its very presence admits the absence of man, and admission outline, finally the rock, whose shape suggests still another landscape: imagined and drawn of history. There is, in “Composed Among the Ruins of a Castle in North Wales” (1824), a parallel to Price’s theories of landscape gardening, where the patina of operations term paper time is recommended to provide an unfinished roughness to stonework, to admission, replace bunched bush with unexpected tree and shiny brick with sombre block. This aesthetic was, as we have seen, actually focused not merely upon visually based appreciation, but upon associated emotional reaction.
The acute interest in ruins demonstrated by artists during the Picturesque period was entirely germane with the management term, general elegiac mood and graveyard melancholy. This interest in ruins, obviously, was shared by Wordsworth. “Composed Among the Ruins,” after a conventionally ominous opening: “Through shattered galleries, ’mid roofless halls, / Wandering with timid footsteps oft betrayed (1-2), finally becomes a eulogium: Relic of Kings! Wreck of forgotten Wars, To winds abandoned and the prying Stars.
Time loves Thee! at admission essay outline, his call the Seasons twine. Luxuriant wreaths around thy forehead hoar; And, though past pomp no changes can restore, A soothing recompense, his gift is Thine! (9-14) There can be no clearer example of poetic philosophical perspective—Father Time and girls smarter boys essay, Mother Nature, the benevolent patrons of Ruin—entirely born of picturesque aesthetic theory.
Doubtless there is outline, also a playfulness here, and one reminiscent of Gilpin: What share of essay picturesque genius Cromwell might have, I know not. Certain however it is, that no man, since Henry the Eighth, has contributed more to admission essay, adorn this country with picturesque ruins. The difference between these two masters lay chiefly in bless me ultima the style of ruins, in which they composed. Henry adorned his landscape with the ruins of abbeys; Cromwell, with those of castles. I have seen many pieces by this master, executed in a very grand style. . . . (II, 122-3) All this seems further indication of the longevity of the Picturesque.
Landscape and admission essay outline, (small case) nature clearly are the essay, central rubric of late eighteenth and early nineteenth century cultural movement; and Wordsworth’s transformation of poetry occurs in a context where new values and aesthetic parameters are well established. It is the colourful mixing of essay both palettes which is Wordsworth, and girls boys, which defines early romanticism. Compared to college admission essay outline, earlier treatments of landscape and nature, offering that flat canvas description, Wordsworth adopts the criteria of picturesque aesthetics, but incorporates the essay, emotional dimension offered by the associative value of outline word, of memory, of subjective response. The elements of Picturesque landscape then become “the stuff that dreams are made of”: dreams reflective, dreams nostalgic, dreams dreaming, and dreams born of a learned appreciation for beauty that is particularly and properly Picturesque. There is a final plot twist: Watson cunningly has stacked the deck. He swiftly explains away the Picturesque in Wordsworth’s later poetry by suggesting that this is merely the work of “his uninspired years” (92).
Of course, this is much too glib, especially when we remember the argumentative statement and drug, voracity with which critics inform us of Wordsworth’s rejection of the Picturesque, stressing and re-stressing its “limitations.” Again, what seems a more reasonable explanation is that the Picturesque provided not only the foundations for romantic poetry, but that without the admission essay outline, Picturesque there would have been no romantic poetry at all. In simple terms, one can perhaps take the poet out of the Picturesque, but you cannot take the Picturesque out of the poet. Figure 10: Kenneth Clark, Doctor Syntax sketching a lake, from Bicknell. Figure 11-12: Gilpin, Non-picturesque and picturesque mountain landscape.From Three Essays. Figure 13: Sir George Beaumont, Landscape , from Bicknell. The Foreground: Keats. This section will firstly consider particular difficulties in approaching Keats and the Picturesque, moving then to term paper, Keats’ Picturesque view, its effects and influence. The non-faddish longevity and ultimate importance of the Picturesque is college admission essay outline, finally determined.
Wordsworth, born with and nurtured on the Picturesque, could never escape its influence and sustenance. Indeed, Wordsworth without the Picturesque seems himself a destitute and girls, picturesque half-starved figure. Keats, although temporally distant from the eighteenth century Picturesque development, attempts to see with the Picturesque vision, to adopt the college admission essay outline, general philosophy, providing compelling evidence against the standard cultist and faddish judgements offered by faddish modern literary scholars and serves as testimony not only to the Picturesque’s diuturnity, but also its fundamental value. An examination of Keats in terms of the entry system of accounting ppt, Picturesque, however, involves a number of initial problems. The Problem With Keats. Firstly, Keats (1795-1821) published his first solitary poem—“O Solitude,” in admission outline The Examiner —in 1816. In simple terms, Keats came of age with landscape firmly entrenched as an aesthetic concept that required no further exploration. The Picturesque, initially the essays, only means of discovering landscape, now stood like an old well-travelled train puffing steam on some siding. Landscape was omnipresent, on main lines and branch lines, an aesthetic form no longer solely the stuff of agriculture and ownership. This is not to imply that exploration could no longer take place, only outline, that the imperative was now only an implication.
Secondly, the title of Keats’ first penned poem—“Imitations of Spenser” (1814)—suggests Keats’ propensity to look backwards, not particularly to operations paper, the neo-classicist’s Golden Age—though his use of admission essay myth glances in that direction—but most particularly to essay about dying, a Golden Age of English poetry: Spencer, Shakespeare, Milton. Admission! Not surprisingly, poetic drama and epic seemed the fairest genres. Thirdly, as Keats claims, his interest was in people not pictures: “Scenery is fine, but human nature is operations term paper, finer” ( Letters , I, 242). However, as with Wordsworth, autotelic acceptance of such claims overlooks the need to mine more valid resources in other areas and risk faulty and perhaps fatal conclusions. Finally, Keat’s interest in language itself, in college admission essay imagery and metaphor—in addition to the “felicity and variety” ( Letters , xxxi)—leads him towards the adoption of essays diction born of those same grand masters; as well as to the inevitable effect of the unexpected: his singular phraseology.
Standard Picturesque idiom, by now somewhat hackneyed, is unable to admission essay outline, convey this effect and in english, Keats’ early poetry provides the lion’s share of colloquialisms. Further, it becomes quite clear quite soon that Keats’ goal was to depart from stylistic norms, particularly those of the eighteenth century and achieve some degree of originality. All this notwithstanding, the sustaining power of the Picturesque—and so its importance—can still be discovered in both the life and works of Keats. “O Solitude,” reveals a vision of landscape which is college essay, particularly picturesque: O SOLITUDE! if I must with thee dwell, Let it not be among the jumbled heap. Of murky buildings; climb with me the steep,— Nature's observatory—whence the dell,
Its flowery slopes, its river's crystal swell, May seem a span; let me thy vigils keep. ’Mongst boughs pavillion’d, where the essays in english, deer’s swift leap. Startles the wild bee from the college essay, fox-glove bell. But though I'll gladly trace these scenes with thee, Yet the management term, sweet converse of an college, innocent mind, Whose words are images of thoughts refin’d, Is my soul's pleasure; and it sure must be. Almost the highest bliss of human-kind, When to thy haunts two kindred spirits flee. Here, Keats paints no landscape with his words; rather, he adopts an attitude to nature which stems not from the southern regions close to double entry, home, but from the heartland of quintessential Picturesque scenery.
It is admission essay outline, here, amongst the steep windswept hills, the spilling streams, the dells and lonely haunts, that a true sense of sublime solitude is experienced. Rather than suggest unsupported influence, merely compare “O Solitude” with Wordsworth’s sonnet on the sonnet, “Nuns Fret Not At Their Convents’ Narrow Rooms,” clearly contextualised in descriptive the Lakelands: “. . . Essay Outline! bees that soar for bloom, / High as the highest Peak of Furness-fells, / Will murmur by the hour in foxglove bells” (5-7). In “Sleep and Poetry” (1816), Keats demonstrates a simple gratification in simple Nature descriptions, beginning his description of term Poesy—the highest calling—entirely in outline naturalistic terms: Should I rather kneel. Upon some mountain-top until I feel. A glowing splendour round about me hung, And echo back the voice of thine own tongue? (49-52) Here the mountain top serves as altar to system ppt, the poet-priest: both the material manifestation and the token picturesque echo of poetry’s voice, the situation and inspiration.
This soon progresses to a unclouded analogy between literature and landscape: Will be elysium—an eternal book. Whence I may copy many a lovely saying. About the college admission essay outline, leaves, and flowers—about the playing. Of nymphs in woods, and fountains; and the shade. Keeping a silence round a sleeping maid. (63-68) The opening, “What is more gentle than a wind in argumentative statement summer” (1), “More healthful than the college outline, leafiness of dales?” (7) sets the initial tone: composed of a sappy repetition of feminine rhymes that describes entirely the sappy nature Keats first has in mind. The centre weight of “Sleep and entry of accounting, Poetry” is sweetness (the word sweet occurs ten times) rather than picturesqueness.
Interestingly, Poetry—the answer to this famous string of rhetorical interrogations—is described in terms familiar to the Picturesque. Outline! There is the beautiful: “beautiful,” “smooth,” “wings of girls smarter than essay a swan”; intermixed with the sublime: “awful,” “fearful claps of thunder,” “low rumblings,” and “sounds which will reach the Framer of all things.” Keats then once again rambles in his southern fields of “joy,” to “woo sweet kisses,” amongst fanciful “Flora”; all in all, “A lovely tale of human life.” Briefly, Poesy is itself a kind of admission essay Edenesque landscape, where the gentle white dove wafts its wings in cooling wind for the resting poet. And yet Keats knew such joys he must “. . . pass . . . for girls smarter, a nobler life,” and there “find the agonies, the strife / Of human hearts. . . . (122-124). This re-introduces Poetry, this time in admission outline terms of “calling,” and again Keats offers images drawn from the picturesque landscape, eloquent as allegory for smarter than, the solitude, agonies and college admission outline, transience of the human experience: “cragginess”; “winds with glorious fear”; the sky is no longer filled with fluffy white, but “ a huge cloud's ridge”; there are now “mountains” filled with “Shapes of delight, of mystery, and fear.” Keats, aspires to become the powerful “charioteer,” understanding “the agonies, the strife” of essay dying “thousands” of different men. Clearly and undeniably—and here we can be thankful that the admission essay, literary jury who generally overlook Keats and the Picturesque are not only out to lunch but almost completely out of the double entry system of accounting ppt, picture—Picturesque allusions best express those agonies, that strife. The final verse paragraphs provide an admission outline, extra dimension, an inventory of the art decoration in his friend Hunt’s house situated within the larger context of poetic fancy. Landscape is reframed as landscape painting, providing an early indication of Keats’ frame of mind: his leanings toward art. It seems clear from all this that Keats already understands the girls smarter essay, symbolic value of the picturesque scene: its ability to college essay, conjure up the essence of man’s existence: the beauty of bless me ultima essay religion youth coupled with the awful of age, that dialogue which utters mutual pity and ultimate evanescence. At the outline, same time there can be little doubt that Keat’s cheerful disposition at this time makes the Picturesque an uncertain subject.
“I Stood Tip-Toe” (1816) offers another early effort at girls smarter than boys, landscape poetry. Almost at once the view from the college admission, “little hill” becomes an exercise. To peer about upon variety; Far round the horizon's crystal air to skim, And trace the dwindled edgings of its brim; To picture out the quaint, and curious bending. Of a fresh woodland alley, never ending; Or by the bowery clefts, and leafy shelves,
Guess where the jaunty streams refresh themselves. (16-22) Unfortunately, there is no unity in Keats’ picture—despite the superlative editorial annotation of “pure nature-painting”—only a variegated catalogue of nature confused by occasional legends of Hellas and bless me ultima essay, compounded by relentless rhyming couplets. If the landscape speaks to college admission outline, Keats, the voice again has sappily sweet tendencies, as with the feminine rhyme, “Nature's gentle doings” which are “softer than ring-dove's cooings.” Even quintessential picturesque elements become, like “the quaint mossiness of smarter boys aged roots,” quaint rather than symbolic or expressive. If Keats found any authentic feeling in this landscape, the poem offers barely a sigh. This becomes clear when we compare: My spirit is too weak—mortality. Weighs heavily on me like unwilling sleep, And each imagined pinnacle and steep. Of godlike hardship tells me I must die. Like a sick eagle looking at the sky. (1-5)
This contemplation comes not from the admission, vision of landscape but “On First Seeing the Elgin Marbles,” written the following year. During this early period, then, Keats is more often touched in a vague spiritual sense not by landscape nor nature but by art. As Maureen B. Roberts explains in her somewhat chimerical The Diamond Path: Individuation as Soul-Making in argumentative statement and drug abuse the Works of John Keats : Within these few lines are themes and admission outline, symbols which come to feature prominently in Keats’ mature poetry: the eagle as the transcendent victory of argumentative thesis abuse beauty—the vision of unity—over the “dizzy pain” of the outline, “undesirable feud” of opposites; the motif of heaviness representing the Gnostic “sleep” as imprisonment in the world, and sickness as the self-division which must be transcended in order to system ppt, attain the ascent. (Roberts) Whatever the extent of Gnostic influence, the college admission outline, fact remains that the Elgin Marbles lead Keats inwards, towards fundamentals, while the tip-toe view results in little more than a dance through the tulips; indeed by the end of the poem we can only imagine Keats tired of double entry system of accounting his tip-toe prance. And yet, in “To Haydon,” written concomitantly with the Elgin Marble sonnet, Keats composed another in which he speaks of men who stare at sculptures “with browless idiotism.” The sonnet also includes: . . . forgive me that I cannot speak. Definitively of these mighty things; Forgive me that I have not eagle’s wings, That what I want I know not where to seek. (“To Haydon,” 3-6) Keats then is still searching, rambling, as we shall see, between the vicarious and the actual.
There is some certitude: the unbreakable link between landscape and poetry: “Some flowery spot, sequester'd, wild, romantic, / That often must have seen a poet frantic” (“Epistle to admission, George Felton Mathew,” 37-8)  ; and the particularly evocative effects of picturesque scenery which speak to Keats of Poetry as vocation. Yet still the searching, which eventually will lead him towards the Picturesque. People not Pictures. March 13, 1818, Keats writes to his friend Bailey: “Give me a barren mould so I may meet with some shadowing of Alfred in argumentative statement abuse the shape of a Gipsey, a Huntsman or as Shepherd. Scenery is fine, but human nature is finer” ( Letters , I, 242). As an addendum to this, Keats felt that the principal use of poetry was to sharpen “one’s vision into the heart and nature of man” (qtd. Bate, 337). Although this seems to exclude any exploration of the Picturesque, Keats’ catalogue of characters are, perhaps inadvertently, certainly importantly, all of the Picturesque scene. Further, Turner’s series of Picturesque landscapes of England and Wales, which beyond doubt are Picturesque studies, nevertheless express the idea that “man is as much a phenomenon of the natural world as are mountains, fields and oceans” (Shanes, 8). It seems clear that Keats, familiar with the beauty of southern landscape, still lacked in any actual experience of the admission essay outline, Picturesque sublime. An exhibition of the management paper, American painter, Benjamin West, where “. . . Keats was altogether receptive to any effort to attain the ‘sublime’”(Bate, 243), featured one particular painting, “Death on the Pale Horse,” known for stirring such feelings.
Keats was ultimately disappointed: . . Admission Essay! . there is nothing to be intense upon; no women one feels mad to kiss; no face swelling into descriptive essay someone dying, reality. . . . The excellence of every Art is its intensity, capable of making all disagreeable evaporate, from their being in admission close relationship with Beauty and Truth—Examine King Lear you will find this exemplified throughout. (qtd. Bate, 243) Although this does underscore the focus of Keats’ main interest, his dissatisfaction with this painting seems singular. A letter to Reynolds (25 March, 1818), for example, contains the following: You know the Enchanted Castel, it doth stand. Upon a rock, on entry system ppt the border of a Lake, Nested in trees, A mossy place, a Merlin’s Hall, a dream. You know the clear lake, and the little Isles.
The Mounts blue, See what is coming from the essay, distance dim! A golden galley all in silken trim. O that our dreamings all, of sleep or wake, Would all the colours from the me ultima essay religion, sunset take. College Admission Essay! . . Argumentative And Drug Abuse! . ( Letters , 260-261) Keats explains in an endnote to this poem that his inspiration was Claude’s “Enchanted Castle” in “ Sacrifice to Apollo ” ( Letters , 263) . Further, Manwaring suggests that the same canvas was transmuted into college admission outline, certain lines of “Ode on a Grecian Urn”—itself formed of descriptive about someone pictures; and college essay outline, perhaps a sense of Claude is still heard in “. . . magic casements, opening on the foam / Of perilous seas, in faery lands forlorn” (“Ode to a Nightingale, 69-70). Although Keats will discover a sense of smarter than boys sublimity in landscape during his 1818 Picturesque tour, art provided the admission essay, source from which he would most often and most naturally drink.
The sense of sublimity through the subjective contemplation of operations management objects is common to college, the romantics, but Keats’ “Ode on a Grecian Urn” demonstrates his variance with Wordsworth: for Keats it is the Urn rather than Nature which provides lessons of truth. And yet there is a striking similarity, for the main theme is not the double, figures on the Urn but the poet’s own response. The “Scenery is fine, but human nature is finer” notion requires further definition: Keats, by his own confession, states: “. . . my head is sometimes in such a whirl in college considering the million likings and antipathies of our Moments” ( Letters , 324); “I carry all matters to an extreme—so that when I have any little vexation it grows in essay five minutes into a theme for Sophocles” ( Letters , 340). In other words, his youthful mind changes with the frequency of English weather. Admission Essay Outline! His comment here is in nature particular reference to landscape scenes seen in real life: the letter was written during a prolonged stay in Devonshire, during a period described as, “splashy, rainy, misty snowy, foggy haily floody, muddy. . Essay Outline! . Bless Me Ultima Essay Religion! .” ( Letters , 241). Even if we willingly expand his scenery/human nature comment to college essay, all landscapes and entry system, all sunny days—the effect, for example, of admission essay outline offering the quotation without the context in order to prove a point—as ridiculous as this might seem, there still remains, as suggested by the “Gipsey,” “Huntsman” and “Shepherd,” the Picturesque character . The Picturesque Tour  We have so far seen reasons why a Picturesque Tour was long on the books, not least of which is the fact that literature cannot be writ from an exploration only of literature.  Keats’ keen literary vision and his initial rural blindness are unwittingly confessed in “To one who has been long in city pent”: To one who has been long in management term city pent, ’Tis very sweet to admission essay outline, look into the fair. And open face of heaven,—to breathe a prayer.
Full in the smile of the blue firmament. Who is operations paper, more happy, when, with heart’s content, Fatigued he sinks into some pleasant lair. Of wavy grass, and reads a debonair. And gentle tale of love and languishment. (1-8) Certainly there is pleasure in this dulcet southern domain, though finally, typically, Keats turns his full attention to college essay, a book. Sidney K. Robinson, Inquiry into the Picturesque , repudiating the absurdity of operations management term comparing landscapes with paintings, states: For the college, Picturesque, of course, studying paintings and books was the clearest recognition that designing the landscape was a complex amalgam of raw sensory patterns supplied by nature with the patterns of arrangement and selection inherent in the operation of the essays, human mind. (Robinson 103) Although the connection might seem somewhat tenuous, designing poetry is admission essay, equally “an amalgam of raw sensory patterns supplied by nature with the patterns of operations term paper arrangement and selection inherent in the operation of the human mind.” Keats had studied literature and now the necessity of experiencing raw nature at first hand could no longer be denied. By mid 1818, Keats realised “there is something else wanting to one who passes his life among Books and thoughts on Books” (qtd. Bate, 340).
In April, Keats proposed. within a Month to put my knapsack at college admission essay, my back and make a pedestrian tour through the North of England, and part of Scotland—to make a sort of Prologue to the Life I intend to pursue. . . Entry System Ppt! . ( Letters , 264) As a citizen of the romantic province, experiencing nature at length and up-close was a moral imperative, not only because other poets had trod that path, but because nature, especially the grander and awful, are essential for imaginative energy. Keats knew this and Keats went a-wandering. In late June, his travelling companion, Charles Brown, wrote in his journal: The country was wild and romantic, the weather fine, though not sunny, while the fresh mountain air, and many larks about us, gave us unbounded delight. As we approached the lake, the scenery became more grand and beautiful; and from time to college admission outline, time we stayed our steps, gazing intently on it. Bless Religion! Hitherto, Keats had witness nothing superior to admission essay, Devonshire; but, beautiful as that is, he was now tempted to speak with indifference. At the first turn from the road, before descending to the hamlet of Bowness, we both simultaneously came to a full stop.
The lake [Windermere] lay before us. His bright eyes darted on a mountain-peak, beneath which was gently floating a silver cloud; thence to a very small island, adorned with the double of accounting, foliage of trees, that lay beneath us, and surrounded by water of a glorious hue, when he exclaimed: “How can I believe in that?—surely it cannot be!” He warmly asserted that no view in the world could equal this—that it must beat all Italy. ( Letters , 425-426) (See figure 14. ) It is perhaps difficult for the sensorially saturated modern to imagine the provocativity and, yes, the sublimity, of college admission such landscape; this lengthy extract, however, makes clear the power of the double ppt, Picturesque, temporally contextualised, when such scenes were relatively unfamiliar. In a sense, we have here the spectacular importance of the Picturesque, an indication of why a revolution it caused in aesthetics and college essay, art; and the comparison with Italy—the fountain-head from which swelled the Picturesque—is beyond doubt no chancy happening. Keats’ own record of the tour, his correspondence, is equally mottled with superlatives: What astonishes me more than anything is the tone, the colouring, the slate, the stone, the moss, the double system ppt, rock-weed; or, if I may so say, the intellect, the countenance of such places. The space, the magnitude of mountains and waterfalls are well imagined before one sees them; but this countenance or intellectual tone must surpass every imagination and defy any remembrance. Outline! ( Letters , 301) (See figure 15.)  Here then Keats finally discovers the Picturesque (note the catalogue) as well as its associational value. Paraphrasing Archibold Alison, Hipple states: “An object is argumentative thesis abuse, picturesque if it is such as to awaken a train of college essay associations additional to bless me ultima essay, what the scene as a whole is calculated to excite” (164). Again, the admission essay outline, picturesque then is a term whether in in english landscape, painting or literature which has everything to do with associationism; and we see that Price’s attempt to divorce the term from its reference to admission outline, pictorial representation is by no means peculiar.  Keats, clearly, has imagined such scenes, imagines them as he hikes, and yet the intellect seems suddenly insignificant once confronted with the actual. Keats goes on to tell Tom:
I shall learn poetry here and shall henceforth write more than ever, for the abstract endeavour of being able to add a mite to that mass of beauty which is harvested from these grand materials, by the finest spirits, and put into etherial existence for thesis, the relish of one’s fellows. Essay! I cannot think with Hazlitt that these scenes make man appear little. I never forgot my stature so completely—I live in the eye; and my imagination, surpassed, is at rest. Argumentative Statement Abuse! (301) There is too much for college outline, coincidence in these two passages: to statement abuse, “defy remembrance,” to “live in the eye,” to “forget my stature,” besides an echoing of negative capability, is clearly to defy Wordsworth—an assertion that though perhaps he follows in the old poet’s footsteps, he will find his own way in the Picturesque. Indeed, Keats himself admits this point: As to the poetical Character itself, (I mean that sort of which, if I am anything, I am a Member; that sort distinguished from the wordsworthian or egotistical sublime; which is college admission outline, a thing per descriptive essay dying se and essay outline, stands alone) it is not itself—it has no self—it is operations term, everything and nothing. Admission! ( Letters , 386-7)
In a similar vein, Keats comments on Windermere, which makes. . . . Of Accounting! one forget the divisions of life; age, youth, poverty and riches; and outline, refine ones sensual vision into a sort of north star which can never cease to be open lidded and steadfast over dying, the wonders of the college outline, great Power. ( Letters , 299)  At the end of June, Keats visits the “Druids’ Circle.” Gilpin, in his tour of the girls than essay, Lakes, discovered this same temple, which he admits is not particularly picturesque, though conjured up pictures of Druid priests and ritual sacrifice. A romantic fancy? Surely not! The pit-falls, obstacles and hardships of the tour increasingly insinuate themselves into his correspondence. Brown was a veteran hiker. For Keats—by no means weak-kneed nor namby-pamby—the going becomes too tough. The Picturesque of northern Britain is a landscape of antagonistic elements, gentleness is anathema, where the only comfort can come from discomfort. College Essay! All this, compounded with climactic and topographical alienness, becomes apparent in “On Visiting the Tomb of Burns,” written during the tour:
The town, the churchyard, and essay about, the setting sun, The clouds, the trees, the rounded hills all seem, Though beautiful, cold—strange—as in a dream, I dreamed long ago, now new begun. The short-liv’d, paly Summer is college essay outline, but won. From Winter’s ague, for one hour’s gleam; Though sapphire-warm, their stars do never beam:
All is cold Beauty, pain is never done: For who has mind to relish, Minos-wise, The Real of nature essays in english Beauty, free from that dead hue. Sickly imagination and college admission, sick pride. Cast wan upon it? Burns! with honour due. I oft have honour’d thee.
Great shadow, hide. Thy face; I sin against me ultima religion the native skies. ( Letters , 308) Although largely a fault finding mission, a remonstrance, penned by a southerner spoiled by languid southern summer sunshine and summer warmth, there is here, as there is not in “I Stood Tiptoe” and other early poems, an authentic sense of feeling, a sense of being touched by landscape and nature, a genuineness that foreshadows “Ode to Melancholy.” There is also an important associational element, translating to the problem of judging beauty when both our judgement and beauty itself are tinged with the omnipresence of brevity and essay outline, death. Essays In English! If the northern summer is only a brief delivery from winter, then what of our lives? The headiness of the college outline, first fine weather days are followed by an account of argumentative thesis statement and drug abuse a country dance, which Keats concludes with what is becoming a familiar refrain: “This is what I like better than scenery” ( Letters , 307). In Scotland he writes: “I know not how it is, the Clouds, the sky, the Houses, all seem anti Grecian anti Charlemagnish—I will endeavour to get rid of my prejudices, tell you fairly about the Scotch” ( Letters , 309). At the same time, there is a clue to essay outline, Keats’ understanding of picturesqueness: “The barefooted Girls look very much in keeping—I mean with the Scenery about girls than boys, them. . Admission! . Argumentative And Drug! . They are very pleasant because they are very primitive” ( Letters , 318-19). Steeped in literature, with much of his experience experienced vicariously, Keats can never entirely lose his prejudice. As hinted above, Keats takes great delight in picturesque characters: Imagine the worst dog kennel you ever saw placed upon two poles from a mouldy fencing—In such a wretched thing sat a squalid old woman squat like an ape half starved from a scarcity of college admission essay Biscuit in its passage from Madagascar to the cape,—with a pipe in her mouth and looking out with a round eyed skinny lidded, inanity—with a sort of nature essays in english horizontal idiotic movement of her head—squat and lean she sat and puffed out the smoke while two ragged tattered Girls carried her along. ( Letters , 321-2) Notice the skill with which Keats intensifies the college admission outline, picturesque effect: the mixed dog/ape metaphor, the alliteration and repetition.
This, certainly, is a different Picturesque, though nonetheless Picturesque. The detachment we witnessed in Wordsworth—that frequent remoteness from the real trials and tribulations of country life—is also manifest in Keats. John Clare, Keats’ contemporary, similarly notes: . . System Ppt! . his descriptions of scenery are often very fine but as it is the case with other inhabitants of great cities he often described nature as she appeared in his fancies not as he would have described her had he witnessed the admission outline, things he describes—Thus it is he has often undergone the stigma of Cockneyism what appears as beautys in the eyes of a pent-up citizen are looked upon as conceits by those who live in argumentative and drug the country—these are merely errors but even here they are merely the errors of poetry—he is essay, often mystical but such poetical licences have been looked on as beauties in Wordsworth Shelley and in double of accounting ppt Keats they may be forgiven. (qtd. Watson, 23) The idea that such romanticisms are “merely errors of poetry” is indicative of the times, a kind of Claudian perspective where both the Picturesque and poetic vision could often turn a blind eye to social reality and see instead a dislocated ideal. The subject then is not merely inaccuracy in essay “descriptions of scenery” but the general anti-utilitarianism of romantic poetry. This, it seems, is much more “comic and faddish” (Brownlow, 43) than learning to appreciate landscape through painting.
It is essay religion, also entirely common to college essay outline, all the essay dying, romantic poets. College Outline! Again, to quote Clare: And een the fallow fields appear so fair. The very weeds make sweetest gardens there. And summer there puts garments on so gay. I hate the plow that comes to dissaray. And man the only object that disdains. Earths garden into deserts for his grains. Leave him his schemes of gain—tis wealth to me.
Wild heaths to trace—and not their broken tree. Which lightening shivered—and which nature tries. To keep alive for poesy to me ultima essay, prize. (Clare, 80) Interestingly, however, such romanticism of country life is often omitted during the tour, where Keats comes face to college essay, face with the squalor—and a foreign squalor to such a southerner—of poverty and often describes it in empathetic or political terms: On our walk in descriptive essay someone dying Ireland we had too much opportunity to see the worse than nakedness, the college, rags, the dirt and misery of the poor common Irish—A Scotch cottage, though in that some times the Smoke has no exit but at the door, is a palace to an Irish one. Statement And Drug Abuse! ( Letters , 321)
There is perhaps some implication that a philosophical shift occurs in moving from poetry to prose, as if the picturesque vanishes with the admission, replacement of smock for Wellington boots and statement and drug abuse, overalls, a justification for the might of “modern” prose. The subject of Keats’ complaint was also the subject of a Picturesque sub-category: the Gainsboroughesque “cottage Picturesque,” where sublimity is admission outline, replaced by entry system of accounting ppt, romantic rusticity, where such squalor is marked by its absence: in college admission essay essence, a gentle Picturesque (see figure 16 ). In a gasping effort at double system of accounting, brevity, much has been overlooked. In summary, Keats’ correspondence during the college outline, tour is overgrown with the Picturesque, from poems such as “Ailsa Rock” (see figure 17) and ppt, “Ben Nevis,”—which, in its stumbling uncertainty, seem neither a Ben nor a Nevis—to comments such as “evey [sic] ten steps creating a new and beautiful picture—sometimes through little woods—there are two islands on the Lake each with a beautiful ruin—one of them rich in ivy ( Letters , 338).  In early August, after covering 642 horizontal and college admission, vertical miles in sometimes cold wet conditions with sometimes poor food and system, indifferent accommodation, after suffering a fortnight from a cold and sore throat, Keats abandoned the tour and admission essay outline, left his friend to continue alone. 
Watson—in his singular modern study of Keats and the Picturesque, which continues the smarter than boys, standard criticism instituted with Wordsworth—provides a succinct panorama of the essay outline, refracted light of influence the Picturesque tour radiates over term, Hyperion , and there is no need therefore to offer excessive focus.  In summary, Watson points out that the power of the poem stems from Keats’ “mythologising imagination” and the sublime “terrifying landscapes which form the background for the colossal figures” (155). But the picturesque, in college essay addition to background, also serves as a form of characterisation, externalising the internal: . . . where their own groans. They felt, but heard not, for the solid roar. Of thunderous waterfalls and torrents hoarse. Pouring a constant bulk, uncertain where. Crag jutting forth to crag, and rocks that seem’d. Ever as if just rising from a sleep, Forehead to system of accounting, forehead held their monstrous horns; And thus in a thousand hugest phantasies. Made a fir roofing to this nest of woe. Admission Essay Outline! (II,6-14)
On similar lines, “The quiet sublime imbues the sorrow-worn face of Moneta within the temple of Western memory built by Keats in The Fall of Hyperion ” (Woodring, 40). There are, however, a few additional points which Watson fails to note. Firstly, the girls boys essay, poem opens with Saturn and Thea postured “. . . motionless / Like natural sculpture in college essay cathedral cavern” (I.85-86). The scene is represented through copious visual images at girls boys, the expense the auditory. Recollecting, “I live in the eye” from his picturesque tour, there is some hint of the visual memories which form the scenery of Hyperion’s stage.
The “fallen divinity” of Saturn exists in a mythico-historical landscape formed of the college essay outline, transcendental imagination and nature experienced during the tour: the “thousand hugest phantasies.” Watson’s closing comment—“ Ode to Autumn originated in the Hampshire harvest-time, not on a Lakeland mountain; and the nightingale, like Keats, sings only in the south of England” (157)—scores high marks for rhetorical tune and poetic twang; unfortunately, it is falsely based upon the premise that the Picturesque is heterogeneous to Hampshire as well as drawing attention to his ornithological dullness. Following the Picturesque Tour, Watson states: “. . . and there, apart from Canto I of The Fall of descriptive Hyperion , Keats turned his back upon admission essay outline, the picturesque for ever” (157). Although, again, rhetorically right and conforming to the standard ignominiously moulded analysis of the Picturesque, this is not, in actual fact, the case. The influence of smarter than Claude’s Sacrifice to Apollo on “Grecian Urn” and “Ode to a Nightingale” has already been mentioned. In more general terms, and as Bate mentions: “It is interesting to note the number of spontaneous phrases and images in his letters now that are later echoed in the poetry, especially in the Odes“ (358). Although instances are numerous, a couple will prove the essay, point.
In terms of diction, compare: “There is no great body of water, but the accompaniment is delightful; for and drug abuse, it ooses out from a cleft in perpendicular Rocks, all fledged with Ash. . .” ( Letters , 306) with, “ Fledge the wild-ridged mountains steep by steep” (“Ode to Psyche,” 55). In terms of a specific memory, compare the excursion to Ambleside waterfall: “. . . College Essay! it is buried in trees, in the bottom of the valley—the stream itself is argumentative thesis abuse, interesting” ( Letters , 300), with, “. . . over the still stream, / Up the hill-side; and now 'tis buried deep / In the next valley” (“Ode to a Nightingale,” 76-8). The Picturesque continued to work through Keats’ poetry: not always clearly; but the lines still are drawn. Recalling Keats’ comments on first seeing Windermere, which included “refine ones sensual vision into college, a sort of north star,” we move easily to bless essay religion, its later transmutation: Bright star, would I were stedfast as thou art- Not in lone splendour hung aloft the night, And watching, with eternal lids apart, Like nature’s patient, sleepless Eremite, The moving waters at their priestlike task.
Of pure ablution round earth’s human shores, Or gazing on the new soft-fallen mask. Of snow upon the mountains and the moors; No-yet still stedfast, still unchangeable, Pillow’d upon admission essay outline, my fair love’s ripening breast, To feel for ever its soft fall and swell, Awake for ever in a sweet unrest,
Still, still to hear her tender-taken breath, And so live ever-or else swoon to death. ( Complete Poems , 329) One of the problems of looking at Keats in a Picturesque context, as mentioned above, is his unwillingness to adopt standard phraseologies, choosing instead to create fresh imagery. Although this is indeed a “problem,” it is also a solution. Knight was perhaps the most adamant proponent of “novelty” in Picturesque scenes. Nature! A vast expanse of lawn is admission essay outline, boring not simply for its smoothness, but for its lack of surprise. Abrupt variation produces mixture through novelty.
Richard Payne Knight recognised the double entry of accounting, salutary effect of “irritation” as an outline, interruption of sensations that had become “stale and and drug abuse, vapid” through repetition. (Robinson, 7) It seems fair therefore to suggest that poetic coinings—“large dome curtains,” ( Hyperion ) and “massy range” ( Fall of Hyperion ), for admission essay, example—are a form of term such abrupt variation producing mixture through novelty. In a sense, Keats’ poetical methodology stems directly from the lessons of the Picturesque, at least in terms of “the noble metaphor, when it is placed to college admission, Advantage, casts a kind of Glory round it, and descriptive about someone dying, darts a Lustre through the whole sentence” (qtd. College Essay Outline! Robinson, 9). That dart of descriptive essay about dying lustre provides the interruption, the irritation, the college outline, unexpected that is “novelty.” This is key not only to management paper, the Picturesque but to much of Keats’ better poetry. Although perhaps out on strechified limb, in danger of barking up the wrong tree, the suggestion merely provides some indication of the less obvious influence of the Picturesque. Hipple points out that the term “picturesque” can and is used solely as a literary term: “Blaire,” he says as a case in point, “repeatedly praises epithets, figures and descriptions as ‘picturesque’ as conjuring up distinct and forcible images.” (186) Indeed, compared with Robinson’s analogy between the complexity and mixture of the Picturesque and identical constituents of the essay, 18th century Whig party, (“Compositions of Politics and Money”)—the picturesque here seems more associated with the wig than the party—the claim seems modest enough.
The Liberty of the descriptive dying, Picturesque. The difficulty of defining romanticism, which we have deliberately over-looked, stems of course from the college admission, diversity of poetry, of styles, of influences and of diction of romantic poets. That variety is itself a product of the operations management, times and the liberty that the college outline, Picturesque supported—liberty both in the political and personal sense. Knight, in Progress of a Civil Society , points out the connection between the picturesque landscape garden—and by extension, the Picturesque in general—and the composition of society: As when in formal lines, exact and true, The pruner’s scissors shear the ductile yew,
Amused, its shape and symmetry we see, But seek in vain the likeness of a tree; And while the artist’s pleasing skill we trace, Lament the loss of every native grace: So when too strictly social habits bind, The native vigour of the roving mind, Pleased, the well-ordered system we behold. Its justly regulated parts unfold,
But search in vain its complicated plan. To find the native semblance of a man, And, ’midst the charms of equal rule, deplore. The loss of graces art can ne’er restore. (qtd. Robinson, 134) In a sense, an examination of the Picturesque in the context of its influence on romanticism—even when fairness, as here, is the ultimate goal—does a certain injustice to the subject and thesis abuse, filters out much of the important material. Thus, for example, the liberating effect seems somewhat arbitrary.
Hipple, in The Beautiful, the Sublime and college essay, the Picturesque , occupies a unique position in modern Picturesque analysis, going beyond the girls boys, positivism of art historians and suggesting that the Picturesque is college, consequential in and of itself. Although Hipple rarely ventures beyond summary and conflation of individual Picturesque theories, his treatise is comprehensive, detailed and offers an important concluding point: The aestheticians of this period [eighteenth century] all found their subject to be psychological: the central problem for of accounting, them was not some aspect of the cosmos or of particular substances, nor was it found among the characteristics of human activity or of the college outline, modes of symbolic representation; one and all, they found their problem to be the specification and discrimination of certain kinds of feelings, the determination of the essay about someone dying, mental powers and susceptibilities which yielded those feelings, and of the impressions and college admission outline, ideas which excited them. (305) Although the argumentative thesis and drug, Picturesque, despite Hipple’s unqualified assertion, does indeed concern itself with particular substances: the elemental material of a scene; and with human activity: the hiking and essay outline, picturesque tours, the me ultima essay religion, picturesque guide books and plain and simple painting and poetry; and with modes of symbolic representation: the Picturesque itself is a mode of symbolic representation; Hipple’s stress upon the psychological basis is nevertheless an important point, especially when we look forward to the psychological aspect of romantic poetry. One of the admission, difficulties with the Picturesque is that it never became a unified system; the saving grace of the Picturesque is that it never became a unified system.
It is fundamentally concerned with the native vigour of the roving mind, allowing for operations management term, nature and art to college admission outline, stroll arm in arm, allowing and even insisting upon the liberty of variety and change: the liberty then of double system Wordsworth and Keats. Keats, for all his youth and gentle disposition, found the Picturesque health threatening to walk through and college, almost anomalistic to incorporate in his verse; as a serious poet with ambitions of immortality,  he nevertheless realised its essentiality to his artistic development. Entry System Ppt! As Robinson explains: “Picturesque colors are not fresh, delicate ones of spring, but those of autumn whose age and decay bespeak fullness and repose tinged with memory and the sharpness of abrupt terminations” (101). Admission! Keats then is argumentative abuse, seeking, not for something to save his life, but his immortality. Admission Essay Outline! Keats never reached an age when these colours could clearly be seen and nature essays in english, so we find glimpses here and there and the constant desire to “bid these joys farewell”: those bright colours of youth.
Figure 14: Joseph Farington, Windermere, from essay, Watson. Figure 15: Joseph Farington, The Waterfall at Rydal , from descriptive about, Watson (visited by outline, Keats) Figure 16: Francis Wheatly (1747-1801), Girls washing in argumentative statement and drug abuse a stream, from Bicknell. Figure 17: Ailsa rock, from Bate. Four years after the death of Keats, engraver and publisher Charles Heath and college admission, Turner came “to an agreement that Turner would produce a large quantity of essay about someone water-colours over a number of outline years, from which Charles Heath would choose 120 to operations term paper, be line-engraved and subsequently published under the title of “Picturesque Views in England and Wales.”(Shanes, 5) The Picturesque, even at college essay outline, this date, remains a vital force that warrants the attention of England’s finest artist. Indeed, “Turner was undoubtedly at the height of his mature creative powers during the years of this series”(Shanes, 17)
The implied perception of the romantic movement as a reaction against eighteenth century neo-classicism or, at nature essays in english, the other extreme, as spontaneous literary combustion torched by college admission outline, Wordsworth’s egotistical sublime is prescriptivism unleashed, offering barely the bare bones of a story. Essay Religion! It is neither immaterial nor coincidental that the 1770s—the decade of Wordsworth’s birth—also saw the beginnings of English landscape painting as a major genre, signifying not only a general artistic reaction but also attraction . The eighteenth century saw landscape modified from traditional perceptions of ownership, agriculture and trial and trouble to aesthetic material. This then is the general Picturesque canvass. The Picturesque movement, in providing the initial way of seeing landscape actually encouraged the viewing of landscape, opening the scenery of England to enthusiastic travellers in search of the admission essay, Picturesque and finally revealing what had always been there though never before seen. This suddenly seen landscape was no longer lit by the golden light of a fanciful Golden Age; no longer mottled with classical sylvan shadows, where Pope’s “Fair Thames, flow gently from thy sacred spring, / While on thy banks Sicilian Muses sing”; no longer a continuation of the Works and Days of Hesiod nor theories of Theocritus: now the Island’s landscape might be seen in common light, casting its own shadow, peopled by common people born and bred, the works and days of double of accounting ppt a new age.
In addition to this aesthetic revolution, the heightened status of landscape provided an environment in college admission essay which nature, the individual elements of landscape—already of increasing importance by virtue of developments in the natural sciences—might find its aesthetic value enlarged. The Picturesque movement proved its importance and viability by its very popularity and success. Picturesque theory intellectualised landscape, transforming it into something that could only bless me ultima religion, be truly appreciated through learning, just as neo-classicism had done previously, though now it was no longer classical learning but aesthetic learning that was sought; and the focus was decidedly the essay outline, landscape itself rather than a superimposed classicism. Argumentative Thesis Abuse! It this manner, it was increasingly intellectually acceptable to study landscape, in college painting, in poetry, and in pastime. As Christopher Hussey suggests in The Picturesque : The picturesque view of nature was the new, the only, way of nature in english deriving aesthetic satisfaction from landscape.
Previously, Englishmen had simply failed to connect scenery and painting in their minds. They had liked certain views and certain lights, just as all men like sunshine and verdure, for their own sakes. But landscape as such gave them no aesthetic satisfaction. College Essay Outline! (2) The notion of complete detachment from an aesthetic appreciation of scenery—essentially the unfamiliarity of the familiar—seems, at least at first glance, rooted in a certain outlandishness. Additional proof comes from Wordsworth himself, who lodged for a time near Derwentwater. under the roof of a shrewd and sensible woman, who more than once exclaimed in my hearing, “Bless me! folk [picturesque tourists] are always talking about descriptive about someone dying, prospects: when I was young there never was sic a thing neamed.” (qtd. College Essay Outline! Andrews, 153-4) On a hike through Wales, Uvedale Price came upon a series of natural cascades and me ultima essay religion, expressed his delight to the landowner: He was quite uneasy at the pleasure I felt, and seemed afraid I should waste my admiration. “Don’t stop at college essay, these things,” said he, “I will shew you by smarter than, and by one worth seeing.” At last we came to a part where the brook was conducted down three long steps of outline hewn stone: “There,” said he, with great triumph, “that was made by Edwards, who built Pont y pridd, and it is reckoned as neat a piece of mason-work as any in the country.” (qtd. Argumentative Statement Abuse! Robinson, 11)
Neither is this detachment merely a fact of by-gone days: During a recent journey to England, crossing the North Yorkshire Moors in the company of a local retired farmer, I was struck immediately by the picturesque landscape: a region of sudden chasms, blasted trees and weathered rocky outcrops, of bumbling uncertain stone cottages and barns and shaggy sheep. My companion was indifferent to its charms. Suddenly, all about the meandering road, we came upon an area quite changed, unusually verdant, with thick hedge-rows and college admission essay, trees full grown and full leafed--and decidedly less picturesque. Descriptive Essay Someone Dying! The farmer suddenly came to life. “I did all this,” he began, with an all embracing wave of his hand. College Admission! “It used to double system, be like all the rest, now’t bar rocks. Look at it now though.” For the next several miles he lectured on his “improvements,” singing praise of its cultivated nature and even claiming to have caused changes in local climate! Soon we re-entered the picturesque and protected national park. “Now, just look at that,” he scoffed with a disdainful shake of his head. “It’s bloody awful.” The Picturesque was, further, a ubiquitous movement which sought to understand the nature of aesthetic perception and to provide prescriptions which essentially affected an entirely new appreciation for the wild wilderness of places such as the Cumbrian Lake District.
Finally, we should not discount the political and admission essay, social overtones: the license it provided for liberalism, for variety, for change, for originality. For all its seriousness, Picturesque musings were wont to wander into regions of essay about someone dying absurdity, sometimes finding their way into the real world, as with Charles Hamilton’s hiring of a hermit to sit in college admission outline his back garden hermitage; or the estate village of Old Warden in Bedforshire where, in the early nineteenth century, the residents were cajoled into wearing red cloaks and tall hats to harmonise with the red paint work and charming dormers of their cottages. In the fictional world, this absurdity was also made apparent: A lecture on double system of accounting ppt the picturesque immediately followed, in which his instruction were so clear the she soon began to see beauty admired by him, and her attention was so earnest, that he became perfectly satisfied of her having a great deal of natural taste. He talked of college outline fore-grounds, distances, and second distances--side-screens and perspectives--lights and shades;--and Catherine was so hopeful a scholar that when they gained the top of Beechen Cliff, she voluntarily rejected the whole city of Bath, as unworthy to management paper, make part of a landscape. (Austen 138)
Indeed, the very pith of Picturesque theory might, to the cynical—and especially literary minded—modern, seems daubed with inanity, for it sought to mix landscape and painting, allowing the appreciation of a real scene for its likeness to art, rather than art for its likeness to a real scene—a notion which Hugh Sykes Davies, Wordsworth and college admission outline, the Worth of Words , finds particularly “unnatural.” The important thing to remember here, however, is that this was, plain and simple, the only way into landscape, the only way to see the invisibly visible. Argumentative Statement Abuse! Such satire stemmed from the excesses of the Picturesque movement and outline, the jocularity sometimes manifest in the debate, and is not a suggestion of ignis-fatuus . Further, as Hussey explains, “the picturesque interregnum between classical and romantic art was necessary in order to enable the than boys, imagination to form the college essay outline, habit of feeling through the eyes” (4). It is unfortunate the modern reading of the bless me ultima religion, Picturesque has turned a blind eye to the real meaning of Picturesque and college admission essay outline, adopted the more authoritative expression of Wordsworth himself as well as satirical expression by smarter than, writers such as Austin and William Combe. And yet the ridiculous that some have found in the Picturesque is admission, found equally in those that find it. J. R. Watson, for example, provides a fitting conclusion: after a quotation in which Coleridge writes of a rocky climbing episode, he writes: “In both Wordsworth and Coleridge there is an bless, exhalation at the danger and excitement . . . the danger was there. . . . Gilpin penetrated into the valley beyond Rosthwaite, but did not consider it practicable to go further” (186). So there we have it: the essay, romantic poets were much braver than those mere writers on the Picturesque! And this is good. Watson admits, however, that Coleridge “exaggerated the statement, dangers in college admission outline his letter” (187)! Equally, the idea that the Picturesque had already run its course well before Wordsworth offered the final denunciating blow is patently absurd.
We have already seen how Keats required some close experience of the Picturesque in nature in english order to further develop his poetic potential. We can remove further, both temporarily and geographically: Blake Nevius, in his slim volume, Cooper’s Landscapes , argues convincingly that the Picturesque strongly influenced his pictorial sense and description subsequent to his 1826-1833 stay in admission Europe: What Cooper as a visual artist learned from his travels on the continent is apparent in the later romances. His sharper awareness of pictorial values to be sought in the natural landscape and of the means by which these values could be introduced into imagined landscape is most evident . . . in bless essay religion the forest romances written after his return. (89) We move forward in time, we cross the Atlantic, we leap from poetry to college admission outline, prose, yet still the Picturesque remains, exerting its influence. The Picturesque, popularised by argumentative thesis and drug abuse, the illustrated guides, general debate, fashionable sketching tours, the national fealty of Gainsborough’s work and so on, portrayed a populist and recognisable landscape. Moving away from seventeenth and early eighteenth century depictions of myth-laden Italian scenes, the Picturesque embraced rustic England and adopted a visual idiom from common life. Bermingham’s suggestion that the concomitant “. . . improvement in real landscape, increasing its agricultural yield, raised its commercial and monetary worth” (1), provides a pragmatic exegesis for the new picturesque fashion and underscores changing cultural values.
If agricultural developments—enclosure, consolidation of small holdings and so on—endowed land with new nummary worth, they also caused the physical transformation of large tracts of countryside, working at odds with the increasing sense of cultural and aesthetic worth. As a result, remote rustic regions such as Cumbria’s Lake District, were discovered as “ . . . the image of the homely, the stable, the ahistorical” (Birmingham 9). If at outline, the last of the century—beginning with Cowper—there came poets and painters who . . . found beauty in hedge-rows and corn-fields, and in Hampstead and Mousehold Heaths, it was because of a long training in entry system ppt seeing landscape pictorially,—a training which of necessity began with the most elaborate and heightened forms of landscape, with the richest and most obvious appeal, and on the most vast and impressive scale. (Manwaring, 232) The importance of the Picturesque stems from the fostering of an intellectual approach to college essay outline, the appreciation of architecture, gardening and religion, scenery which in turn opened up new vistas of artistic subjects. The emphasis upon feeling and associational values which grew from analysis of the college outline, sublime and beautiful and blossomed in the Picturesque finally allowed those new vistas to be expressed in subjective and romantic terms. Romanticism, then, was, to essay someone, a large degree, the outline, natural development of Picturesque aesthetics. Of course, the story continues: Ted Hughes, (1930-) born in West Yorkshire and appointed poet laureate in 1984, has written several volumes which testify to statement and drug, the renewed interest in topographical poetry.
And all my holiday snapshots are Picturesque. Andrews, Malcolm. The Search for the Picturesque: landscape aesthetics and tourism in Britain, 1760-1800 . Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1989. Austen, Jane. Northanger Abbey . New York: Dell, 1962.
Bate, Walter Jackson. John Keats . College Admission Essay! Cambridge, Massachusetts: The Belknap Press of girls smarter than Harvard University Press, 1963. Benedict, Barbara M. Making the college admission essay, Modern Reader: cultural mediation in early modern literary anthologies. Thesis Statement! Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1996. Bermingham, Ann. Landscape and Ideology: the English rustic tradition, 1740-1860 . Berkeley: University of California Press, 1986. Bicknell, Peter.
Beauty, Horror and Immensity: Picturesque Landscape in Britain , 1750-1850. Cambridge: The Museum, 1981. Brownlow, Timothy. John Clare and Picturesque Landscape . Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1983. Combe, William. Doctor Syntax his three tours: in search of the picturesque, of consolation, of a wife . London: F. Warne, 1890. Davies, Hugh Sykes. W ordsworth and the Worth of Words.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987. Dayes, Edward, A Picturesque Tour in Yorkshire and Debyshire . London: J. Nichols Son, 1825. Denham, John, Sir. The Poetical Works . Hamden, Conn: Archon Books, 1969. Dyer, John. College! Poems . Ed.
Edward Thomas. Lampeter: Llanerch Enterprises, 1989. Gilpin, William. Girls Smarter Boys! Essay on Prints. London: 1781. ---. Three Essays: On Picturesque Beauty, On Picturesque Travel, and On Sketching Landscape. London: Printed for R. Blamire, 1792. ---.
Observations, relative chiefly to picturesque beauty; made in. the year 1772, on several parts of college admission essay England; particularly the mountains, and lakes of Cumberland, and Westmoreland . London, Printed for R. Blamire, 1792. ---. A dialogue upon the gardens of the Right Honourable Lord Viscount Cobham at Stow in Buckinghamshire . Los Angeles: Williams Andrews Clark Memorial Library, University of California, 1976. --- . Observations on the River Wye . Religion! Richmond: The Richmond Publishing Co.
Ltd, 1973. Greenshields, E.B. Landscape Painting and Modern Dutch Artists . Toronto: Copp, Clark, 1906. Gray, Thomas. Complete Poems of college Thomas Gray. Oxford: Oxford at me ultima essay, the Clarendon Press, 1966. Handy Guide to the English Lakes . Kendal: T. Wilson, undated. Hipple, Walter John. The Beautiful, the Sublime, and the Picturesque in college essay Eighteenth-Century British Aesthetic Theory. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1957.
Hughes, John. The Poetical Works of nature essays in english John Hughes . College Essay Outline! Edinburgh: At the Apollo Press, 1779. Hussey, Christopher. The Picturesque: studies in a point of view . London: Cass, 1967. Johnson, Ben. “To Penshurst” The Norton Anthology of English Literature . Ed. Abrams, M.H. Someone Dying! London: W. Essay Outline! W. Norton Company, 1975. Keats, John.
Complete Poems and Selected Letters . New York: Odyssey Press, 1935. ---. The Letters of John Keats 1814-1821, Volume One. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1958. Knight, Richard Payne. Bless Me Ultima Essay Religion! The Landscape: a Didactic Poem in Three Books Addressed to Uvedale Price . London: Printed by W. Bulmer and college admission, Co., Shakespeare Printing, 1794. Nevius, Blake.
Cooper's Landscapes: an about dying, essay on the picturesque vision. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1976. Pope, Alexander. The Poems of Alexander Pope. Ed. John Butt. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1963. Price, Uvedale. On the Picturesque . Edinburgh: Caldwell, Lloyd, 1842. Roberts, Maureen B., The Diamond Path: Individuation as Soul-Making in the Works of John Keats . 1997. http://www.cgjung.com/articles/keats1.html. Robinson, Eric , ed.
Selected Poems and college admission essay outline, Prose of John Clare . Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1967. Robinson, Sidney K. Inquiry into the Picturesque . Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991. Ruskin, John. (www.stg.brown.edu/projects/hypertext/landow/ruskin) Serle, John. A Plan of Mr. Pope's Garden . Los Angeles: William Andrews Clark Memorial Library, University of California, 1982. Turner, J. M. W. (Joseph Mallord William), Turner's Picturesque Views in England and Wales, 1825-1838 . Bless Me Ultima Essay Religion! Ed. College Admission Outline! Eric Shanes. Essays! London: Chatto Windus, 1983. Thomson, James.
The Seasons and The Castel of Indolence . Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1972. Watson J. R. Picturesque Landscape and English Romantic Poetry . London: Hutchinson Educational, 1970. Watkin, David. College Outline! The English Vision: the picturesque in architecture, landscape, and garden design . New York: Harper Row, 1982. West, Thomas. Double System Of Accounting Ppt! A guide to the lakes, in Cumberland, Westmorland, and college essay outline, Lancashire . 4th ed. London : W. Richardson, 1789. Williams, Ralph M. Poet, Painter and Parson the Life of John Dyer.
New York: Bookman Associates, 1956. Woodring, Carl. Nature into Art : cultural transformations in nineteenth-century Britain . Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1989. Wordsworth, William. Guide Through the District of the Lakes in the North of England . Me Ultima Essay Religion! London: Oxford University Press, 1970. ---. Poems.
The poetical works of Wordsworth . Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1982. As the title suggests, this is a cross disciplinary study. What might seem, initially, a grand tour—with hefty baggage—into remote realms outside literature proper is, in fact, a survey of the foundations of romanticism. Up until the outline, 19th century, French Salon duries in operations management paper state-run competitions adhered to a strict hierarchy of subjects determined in 18th century Rococo and Neo-Classical art: history and outline, religious subjects, portraiture, still life and, lastly and leastly, landscape. Even the essay dying, French Academy's coveted Prix de Rome for essay, art students had no landscape category until 1817, when historic landscapes with some narrative event were reluctantly allowed. As David Watkin, The English Vision , points out, a similar state existed in the area of architectural paintings: . Than Boys Essay! . . the celebrated architectural competitions for the Grand Prix awarded by the French Academy and later by the Ecole des Beaux-Arts: from the first competition held in college admission essay outline 1702 up until 1962 no site was ever specified.
In England, however, the simple outline elevation in the form of a diagram on an otherwise blank background gradually gave way to drawings which show the building in its setting and eventually, as in the work of Blore for example, to fully developed water-colours of landscape in girls than which the house appears as an incident. (x) When eighteenth century Britons referred to “Poussin” it was normally to Gaspard Dughet and essay outline, not his now more famous brother-in-law, Nicolas Poussin. Other influential artists, though less important to Picturesque developments, were Tintoretto, Ruisdael and Hobbema. One such example, as E. Girls Boys! L. Manwaring notes, is Jonathan Richardson’s An Account of the Statues, Bas-Reliefs, Drawings, and Pictures in Italy, France, c. (1722) which became, for some time, a standard guide. The section on landscape pictures, tellingly, features a prefatory note explaining precisely what landscape pictures are! cite - Manwaring 62 63. Watkin essentially makes the same point, though contextualised within the standard literary bias: The history of amateur sketching in the nineteenth century in the manner of De Wint and Cox affords another example of the way in which a particular mode of vision became established as a thing so “natural” that its artificiality and its debt to the theories of Sir Uvedale Price were generally forgotten. (xi) Roundhay Park—its central stately mansion now a noble pub—in my own home town of Leeds, still features a mock ruin. Over-grown with bramble, nettles, grass and dandelion, it is generally understood—by locals and visitors alike—to be as ancient as it is picturesque. See Manwaring, (8). Johnson’s dictionary, although avoiding the difficulty of defining Picturesque , actually employed it to define other words. Strange then that Burke’s Inquiry is as familiar to admission essay, academics as the operations management, Gospel, whereas Gilpin ideas have become the Apocryphia. The very success of this codification played a prominent role in making banal the very theory it sought to sanctify.
The importance of the imagination and subjective vision in college admission essay landscape painting goes back at least as far as Claude. Samuel Palmer wrote: “When I was setting out for Italy I expected to in english, see Claude’s magical combinations; miles apart I found the disjointed members, which he had “suited to the desires of his mind”; these were the college admission outline, beauties, but the beautiful ideal Helen was his own” (qtd. Greenshields, 16). Gainsborough’s rustic figures were influenced by those of Wynant. (1620-1684) . Amongst the sagging shelves of picturesque guide-books were those by Thomas Gray, James Clark and Thomas West. Besides Landscape and An Analytical Enquiry into the Principles of Taste , Knight published books ranging in subject from sexual symbolism to Greek philology. This note by Knight is reprinted as a preface to Price’s The Landscape . Importantly, the dominance of the ocular sense which, in reference to the Picturesque, so bothered Wordsworth and is often adopted in literary analysis in reference to essay about dying, Gilpin was most singular to Knight; and was, in fact, a cornerstone of the college admission, debate between Knight and Price. For a detailed historical analysis of enquiries into the sublime and the beautiful, as well as the debt owed by Blake to management term, Joseph Addison, see Walter John Hipple’s The Beautiful, the Sublime and the Picturesque . Somewhat ironically, Wordsworth once rebuked his friend Beaumont for painting-in an imaginary ruined castle in one of his favourite views. Constable was born in Suffolk, and essay outline, though he found the Lake District too solitary a place, it was there, in 1806, that he met Wordsworth and Coleridge. See Bermingham for thesis and drug, reproduced illustrations. C. Meeks, The Railroad Station, An Architectural History.
Early pastoral romances—Sidney’s Arcadia (1580-1582) , for outline, example—were resplendent in romance, requiring their courtly readers to possess a familiarity not with nature but classical texts and the conventions of courtly behaviour and are thus excluded from this study. Besides the forced confinement of the bless, heroic couplet, Abraham Cowley in Pindarique Odes (1665) set the example for deliberate irregularity, breaking the chords of the standard Pindaric precedent in outline an effort to stimulate more intense feeling. This is typical Pope: compare, for thesis statement, example, The Temple of Fame : Here naked Rocks, and empty Wastes were seen, There Tow’ry Cities, and the Forests green: Here sailing Ships delight the wond’ring Eyes.
There trees . . . Admission Essay! (15-18) Only myopic—perhaps: Lines 79-80 of Pastorals: Summer : “Your praise the tuneful birds to nature in english, heaven shall bear,/And list’ning wolves grow milder as they hear.” In a footnote, Pope explains: So the verses were originally written. But the author, young as he was, soon found the college essay outline, absurdity which Spenser himself overlooked, of introducing Wolves into England. (131) Pope’s modesty here, of course, is of accounting ppt, overshadowed by the impressive achievement of discovering something even Spenser missed. A fortunate discovery too, for the absurdity of the wolves was noticed by the “ Naiads ,” “Jove,” and “Satyrs” to name only a few native English characters included in college admission outline the poem. Notwithstanding Wordsworth’s recognition of Thomson as the first poet since Milton to offer new images of “external nature.” Gilpin, in particular, was fond of quoting Thomson in his various tours.
The quotation in Section One, from The Castel of Indolence , Canto I, XXXVIII, sufficiently demonstrates Thomson’s familiarity with the great European painters of landscape which, as we have seen, played a crucial role in the development of the English Picturesque school. Constable, for than, example, quoted several lines from “Summer” for college essay, his Salisbury Cathedral from the Meadows . Topographical poems from as early as John Denham’s Cooper’s Hill , published in 1642, which provides a very early example of system of accounting ppt a genre that was to win increasing popularity, invariably involve the poet ascending a peak, surveying the whole and college essay outline, then painting a word picture of interesting prospects. After Wordsworth’s death, a volume of Keat’s poems was discovered amongst his possession, a gift, the pages still uncut. Read an nature essays in english, unwillingness to use the word source . Of course, between the lines we discover the college, implication that Gilpin developed nothing. My own parents, as Yorkshire as Yorkshire Pudding, received, as children of the 1930s, the rare gift of a rare orange for girls smarter boys essay, Christmas, finding it to be the ultimate in exotic luxury! Davies’ enclosing imagination within the confines of quotation marks subtly suggests that Knight meddles with something that was not, in college admission essay outline actual fact, imagination, but some pale imitation, a phantasmagoric and fraudulent imagination, an imagined imagination. Watson’s discomfort is entry, palpable, etched in every repetition of the problem: “Yet the pugnacity of the note needs some explaining” (72); “Yet the poem also contains a direct attack on the picturesque in its footnote” (74); “Yet, as we have seen, the poem also contains an explicit rejection of the habits of picturesque viewing” (77). Turning to The Prelude , Watson offers the standard glib solution: another “yet”: “Yet the college admission essay, energy and power of the experience seen in the light of memory transforms the double system of accounting, picturesque scene into something much more powerful” (76). Even Wordsworth’s initial premise, that the “jagged outline . . . has a mean effect, transferred to canvas,” is perhaps a sentiment more nationalistic than artistic. Indeed, the influence of this book extends beyond Wordsworth into admission essay outline, other critical examinations of the in english, Picturesque and admission, literature, forming the general thesis, for example, of Brownlow’s study of girls smarter than essay Clare, who rides the contemporary critical aversion to the Picturesque like a hobby-horse in the Grand National to the point where either the beast dies a sudden death or the admission essay, race is cancelled: “The Romantics . . . inherited the essay someone dying, picturesque way of looking at nature, but realised that it, in outline turn, had become a tyranny, so they invented new ways of seeing which were new ways of feeling” (16).
On a personal note, I would mention that the Yorkshire Dales are in fact much more picturesque than the Lake District—as are its native inhabitants. It is typical of entry system of accounting ppt Davies’ double-dealing study that these particular pictures are excluded from his pages. Compare this to Wordsworth’s complaint, quoted above, that the picturesque eye sees “Less spiritual, with microscopic view.” Davies also draws attention to Wordsworth’s familiarity with other Picturesque guides, including those of Thomas Gray, Dr. John Brown, Thomas West and James Clark. College Admission! In addition: John Harris [“English Country House Guides, 1740-1840,” Concerning Architecture, ed. Bless! J. Summerson, 1968.] has catalogued as many as ninety guides . College Admission Outline! . . including no less than thirty-one editions of guides to a single house, Stowe. We can thus see how far the Picturesque had helped to thesis statement and drug, foster a literary and intellectual approach to the appreciation of admission essay outline architecture, gardening and scenery. (vii) Wordworth’s almost exclusive employment of his own poems, however, might be considered—by some—as egotistically sublime. Although the edition is undated, an operations management paper, advertisement section features a blurb from a Kendal photographer citing an award won at the Edinburgh International Photographic Exhibition in 1890-91. Such is the longevity of this “faddish cult.” This picturesque apperception took place in 1803. The Prelude was begun in 1799, and completed in college admission outline the summer of 1805.
The conclusion is as obvious as it is unavoidable. We might even waggishly hazard that this superlative picturesque experience took place during the very period of Book XII’s composition. Although Watson provides the fairest literary based analysis of the Picturesque, it is nevertheless incredible that he includes such evidence yet still endorses conventional assumptions. Keats, as a schoolboy, began a translation of the Aeneid . Alternatively, as Walter Jackson Bate informs us in statement abuse his minute biography, Keats felt that Pope was “no poet, only a versifier” (49). The notion of originality is itself a legacy of the romantic ethos: originality becomes vital in art and in life; experimentation with new experiences, diction, systems of thought all become the hallmark of the true romantic genius. Indeed, critics’ unwillingness to give the Picturesque the importance it deserves as both the inaugurator of a new aesthetic vision and as a factor of lasting literary influence stems, perhaps, from the romantic desire to see originality rather than acknowledge the essay outline, temporal continuity of artistic development.
Wordsworth’s preface to Lyrical Ballads disdains overworked poetical diction, though his adoption of Picturesque terminology speaks of following rather than leading. Thomas Gray, in “The Progress of Poesy” (1754), expresses a similar bond between poetry and landscape: Awake, Aeolian lyre, awake, And give to rapture all thy trembling strings. From Helicon's harmonious springs. A thousand rills their mazy progress take:
The laughing flowers, that round them blow, Drink life and fragrance as they flow. Now the rich stream of music winds along. Deep, majestic, smooth, and strong. Thro' verdant vales, and Ceres' golden reign: Now rolling down the steep amain, Headlong, impetuous, see it pour; The rocks and nodding groves rebellow to the roar. (I.i.1-12)
The central image here is Poetry in general global expansion, finding echo in both the term, objects of nature and poets of various ages. Interestingly, even though Keats himself occasionally uses the college, word Picturesque in his correspondence; even though his companion Brown, in Walks in the North , offers the clear sign-post: “Here are the statement and drug abuse, beautiful and sublime in unison,” ( Letters , 428), Bate, in outline his tomeish biography, avoids such inkish sully. Keats’ early literary life was marked by constant frustrations: “. . . I have not an management term, Idea to put to paper—my hand feels like lead . . . I don’t know what to admission essay, write” (qtd. Bate, 342). Indeed, Keats shortly hereafter saw the first waterfall of his entire life. Perhaps suffering still from a mind “in such a whirl in argumentative considering the million likings and admission outline, antipathies of our Moments,” Keats, in a letter filled with similar portrayal, ironically concludes: “. . Descriptive Essay Someone Dying! . descriptions are bad at all times” ( Letters , 301). Compared to John Hughes’ comment (Section Two), this represents by no means a development in the poetic continuum as Keats’ leanings towards the dramatic. Supporting this, and in the context of the picturesque: “Turner undoubtedly had what John Gage has perceptively called ‘an almost obsessive readiness to associate ideas’” (Shanes, 21). Indeed, Keats’ “negative capability,” unless we suspect that he, like Coleridge, was—to quote Edgar Allen Poe—”buried in metaphysics” seems a direct challenge to Wordsworth.
The notion itself germinated from a lecture on Shakespeare given by Keats’ friend, Hazlitt, who stated that Shakespeare. was the least of an egotist that it was possible to be. He was nothing in himself; but he was all that others were, or that they could become. He had in himself not only the germs of college outline every faculty and feeling, but he could follow them by anticipation, intuitively, into all their conceivable ramification . . . He had only to think of entry anything in order to become that thing, with all the circumstances belonging to it. (qtd. Bate, 260) It is no surprise that Keats should whole-heartedly adopt the idea, not only since there is no superior poet to emulate, but because it was so oppositional to the crowned King of romantic poetry: Wordsworth. Perhaps in revolt against the popular, Keats, as in this instance, makes a studious, though far from successful, effort to avoid the college essay, word picturesque , even when the description itself spells out the word. Also, ruins are the essays in english, single most common scenic feature of the tour.
In 1739, on a tour of the Alps, Thomas Gray cunningly wrote: Mont Cenis, I confess, carries the permission mountains have of being frightful rather too far; and its horrors were accompanied with too much danger to give one time to reflect upon college, their beauties. (qtd Woodring, 34) In 1803, Coleridge, overwhelmed and nature essays in english, over-tired, abandoned a tour with William and Dorothy Wordsworth. College! Proof, perhaps, that the sublime can get the better of the egotistical. A continuation, perhaps, of the operations paper, question, “How is college admission essay outline, it they did not [various picturesque and sublime scenes] beckon Burns to some grand attempt at Epic” ( Letters , 331).
The reappearance of the Druid Circle is taken as a given. “. . . to one whom you understand intends to be immortal” ( Letters , 305).
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narrative essay com So, your professor just gave you a new assignment, and it looks like an admission, interesting topic. The problem is of accounting ppt you don’t know how to college admission essay outline, write a narrative essay. Relax (but don’t procrastinate)! Narrative essays are actually pretty fun to write. What’s more, they don’t usually require much research since they are typically based on argumentative thesis statement abuse your life experiences. All that said, there are some important rules to follow.
This blog post will tell you all about narrative essays and teach you how to write a narrative essay that stands out. Narration is writing that tells a story. College Admission Essay. A good way to wrap your mind around a narrative is to think about how a narrator in a film presents a scene. Descriptive Essay Someone Dying. He tells the story from a particular perspective, giving a detailed account of what happened. Consider the admission outline, narration in this clip from smarter essay How the Grinch Stole Christmas : So, how is the narrator’s recounting of the Grinch’s failure to steal Christmas related to learning how to admission, write a narrative essay? As the narrator in your essay, you set the scene and descriptive essay someone dying, tell the story from your viewpoint, giving a detailed report of college essay outline, events. Chances are, you narrate stories every day. I mean, didn’t you just tell your friend all about that funny thing that happened in class earlier? You know how to narrate. So, writing a narrative essay should be easy, right? Well, hold on, it’s not that simple.
One of the nature, challenges with writing narrative essays is admission essay outline that you often have to distill a complex story into a limited (and to-the-point) number of words. At the same time, you have to garner enough interest to keep the reader engaged in in english, your story. Anyone can tell a story, but not everyone can tell a story that captures an audience. It’s important to college admission essay outline, keep some rules in mind as you learn how to nature essays, write a narrative essay. The best way to learn how to college admission essay outline, write a narrative essay is to see an example. I’m going to pretend that I’m the character Rudy (from the 1993 film Rudy ), and I’m going to write a narrative essay about something that happened in my (Rudy’s) life. First, watch this clip from the film: Now, I will write a sample narrative essay, as if this clip were based on my experience. Just as with a true narrative essay, my memory of the experience may be slightly different than the reality of the experience. Argumentative Statement Abuse. You always have some creative license with narrative essays–whether they are fictional or not.
Read this sample essay first, and then I’ll break it down into its elements: A janitor changed my life. Essay Outline. I was at operations management paper a low point, ready to admission outline, quit everything–even when I had it all. Girls Boys. I didn’t realize how lucky I was. At 5 foot nothing, 100 and admission essay, nothing pounds, I was hardly your typical football player. But, that didn’t stop me from believing that I could play for Notre Dame. Entry Of Accounting. It turns out, the most important part of college essay, achieving my dreams is believing in myself. After two years of trying hard to prove that I was worthy of playing, I found out that I hadn’t made the dress list for descriptive essay about our kickoff game.After fighting to be on college admission outline the team and sweating through every practice, I was going to sit on the bench…again.
So, I decided to call it quits. Who was I to think that I deserved anything better than working at the steel plant, just like my father and my brothers? If that life was good enough for them, why wasn’t it good enough for me? As I stood there in section five, staring out at the empty stadium, I thought of how proud my dad would have been to see me out smarter than boys there on admission essay outline the field playing for argumentative thesis and drug abuse the team we both loved so much. College Essay. I felt so stupid. I wasn’t a football player. Thesis And Drug. I was a bench warmer… nothing more.
That’s when the team janitor found me standing there. “Hey,” he said. College Admission. “Don’t you have to term, be at college admission essay practice?” “Not anymore,” I said, annoyed. “I quit.” “Why’d you quit? You don’t seem like the quitting type.” “I don’t know,” I said. “I just don’t see the point anymore.” In that moment, the janitor reminded me of bless essay religion, everything I had already achieved. Against all odds, I had stuck with the team for two years, and I was going to graduate with a degree from essay Notre Dame. What he said next drove his point home. Someone. He said, “In this lifetime, you don’t have to prove nothin’ to nobody except yourself.”
He had a point. I had already proven myself to everyone except for me. Admission Outline. If I didn’t believe in myself… who would ever believe in me? Thanks to the janitor’s wisdom, I eventually played my first–and only–game that season, and argumentative thesis statement and drug abuse, I proved to myself that I can achieve anything I set my mind to. Okay, now let’s pick this thing apart. In the following section, I’ve highlighted certain concepts from my sample narrative essay in different colors. Their explanations follow. A janitor changed my life. Admission Outline. I was at operations term paper a low point, ready to college admission outline, quit everything–even when I had it all.
I didn’t realize how lucky I was. At 5 foot nothing, 100 and nothing pounds, I was hardly your typical football player. But, that didn’t stop me from believing that I could play for Notre Dame. It turns out, the most important part of system, achieving my dreams is admission essay outline believing in myself. Let’s break it down. Start with a strong hook . Just as with any other form of writing, your first paragraph should start with a strong hook. Management. The sentence, “ a janitor changed my life ,” sets up the story with a bold statement meant to capture the college essay, attention of my readers. Argumentative Thesis Abuse. The goal is to make readers ask, “How did a janitor change your life? What happened?”For more information on hook sentences, read my blog post, “How to Write Good HookSentences.” Set the admission, scene . In this section of my first paragraph, I set the scene.
I give the reader some context for my story (I was at a low point. I was a struggling football player for Notre Dame… etc.). Define the purpose . Have you ever heard anyone talk on and on about something without making a point? This is me ultima a common trap for writers attempting a narrative essay. A good narrative essay has a purpose: perhaps you learned a hard lesson, or perhaps you transformed into admission essay outline, a more mature person. Whatever the and drug, case, that purpose should be stated in the first paragraph.
In the example narrative, my purpose is to make the point that “ the most important part of achieving my dreams is admission essay believing in double entry of accounting, myself .” As you can see, the first paragraph is outline critical to setting up a good story. Now, let’s talk about what goes on in your body paragraphs. After two years of trying hard to prove that I was worthy of playing, I found out that I hadn’t made the dress list for our kickoff game. After fighting to dying, be on the team and sweating through every practice , I was going to sit on the bench…again. So, I decided to call it quits.
Who was I to think that I deserved anything better than working at the steel plant, just like my father and my brothers? If that life was good enough for college admission essay them, why wasn’t it good enough for me? As I stood there in section five, staring out at the empty stadium , I thought of how proud my dad would have been to see me out girls than essay there on the field playing for the team we both loved so much. I felt so stupid. I wasn’t a football player. College Essay. I was a bench warmer… nothing more. That’s when the someone, team janitor found me standing there.
“Hey,” he said. Admission. “Don’t you have to religion, be at practice?” “Not anymore,” I said, annoyed . “I quit.” “Why’d you quit? You don’t seem like the quitting type.” “I don’t know,” I said. “I just don’t see the point anymore .” In that moment, the college essay, janitor reminded me of everything I had already achieved. Against all odds, I had stuck with the team for smarter than boys two years, and college admission, I was going to graduate with a degree from Notre Dame.
What he said next drove his point home. He said, “In this lifetime, you don’t have to prove nothin’ to nobody except yourself.” Let’s break it down. Use vivid and appropriate detail . The goal here is to recreate the story for your reader just like it happened. Make the story vivid and full of bless, detail. Note, however, that this is not a descriptive essay, so only include the details that matter most to your story . Use dialogue . College Outline. Sometimes, a great story can’t be told without dialogue. It’s definitely okay to incorporate dialogue, as necessary, especially if it’s a natural part of your story.In my sample essay, the conversation with the janitor is essay critical to the story, so including the dialogue from this interaction is appropriate.
Write chronologically . It’s a smart idea to write in admission, chronological order, especially if you are an inexperienced writer. What happened first, next, and last?This will help you to stay true to operations term, your story and not wander. In this sample, I focus on the sequence of events that led me to my moment of truth, how the janitor talked me into college admission outline, staying on the team, and how this changed my perspective on life. Maintain consistency in narration . Essays. In this example narrative essay, I chose to write in the first-person narrative voice and in the past tense.I chose first person because I was telling a story that happened to me (remember, I’m pretending to college admission essay, be Rudy in this sample). I chose past tense because I’m telling a story that happened in the past .Chances are, you’ll want to write your narrative essay in first person, past tense, too. In some cases, you may find that writing in third person is argumentative thesis a better choice–especially if you are recounting a story that happened to admission, someone else.
But, whatever you choose, keep it consistent throughout. Okay! Let’s move on to the last paragraph. He had a point. I had already proven myself to everyone except for me. Essay Dying. If I didn’t believe in myself… who would ever believe in me? Thanks to the janitor’s wisdom, I eventually played my first–and only–game that season, and I proved to myself that I can achieve anything I set my mind to . Let’s break it down.
Restate your purpose . In your final paragraph, leave your reader with a clear restatement of your purpose.Remember, I began this sample narrative essay by stating my purpose: “The most important part of achieving my dreams is believing in myself.” In the admission outline, final paragraph, I closed with a restatement of this same point: “ I proved to myself that I can achieve anything I set my mind to. ” Here are the eight concepts we just covered, distilled into handy table form for your convenience. Final Thoughts on How to Write a Narrative Essay. As you set out to write your narrative essay, bring the readers on your journey with you. Give them a reason to listen to your story. If you’re uncertain what to write about, remember that a good personal narrative essay will show some sort of transformation. For example, you started out as a shy person, but had an interesting experience that made you more outgoing. Find a story of transformation, and then write about descriptive essay someone, what happened.
If you need more ideas, check out these example narrative essays. Finally, always be sure to edit your personal narrative essay before you submit it! It doesn’t matter how awesome your story is if the college essay, narrative is masked by bad grammar or sentence structure errors. Psst. Girls Than Boys. 98% of Kibin users report better grades! Get inspiration from over 500,000 example essays. About the Author. Naomi Tepper is a former Kibin editor, the former content manager for the Kibin blog, and forever a word nerd. Wooooow, thnx this really saved my day cause I had no idea of how to outline, write a narrative essay.
Happy to statement and drug, help and college admission essay, thanks for reading! You’re welcome! Thanks for reading. Hey… anyone wants to learn the essays in english, best way to write an essay without tutoring…. here it it. this stuff is outline as good as perfect to learn an essay. +Naomi Tepper thanks a ton.. this will help me improve my narrative writing skills.. Thanks again #128578; Aww, shucks thank you! More than happy to argumentative statement and drug abuse, help.
Thank you I really appreciate your help. n if you don’t mind, is it possible that you could help me out with a few links or something, so i could improve my writing skills. (other types of writings as well- like argumentative, descriptive, persuasive, summary writing)… oh! n am also having my IGCSE pre-boards coming up this Monday so even a few tips would also help. Admission Outline. Thanks:) Truthfully, I don’t know much about the IGCSE boards, but I imagine there might be some timed writing tests involved, in nature in english, which case this post might come in handy: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-write-a-timed-essay/ Thanks alot… all of them are really helpful #128578; Can you please guide me to another link with summary writing.. Admission. i think the above link doesn’t seem to argumentative statement and drug, be working.. Thanks in advance. #128578;
Hi Naomi. Essay. Found this really helpful, thank you. I was wondering if you have any additional advice that would help me hone my writing skills. Operations Term. #128578; Hi again, Sowmya! Woot! Looks like your finding your way around our blog.
Nice to admission outline, see you reading this post as well. Yes, I have lots of advice on writing better essays. Argumentative Thesis And Drug Abuse. Check out the comment I left for Joshua (below), it links to admission outline, some of my most useful blog posts. Is it possible if you could share a link on summary writing to me, it would be of great help. Thanks in girls smarter essay, advance.
thank for the awesome help. You are so welcome! Thanks for essay outline the comment. #128578; THANK YOU SO MUCH . YOU HELPED ME A LOT ! Awesome! Happy to help. #128578; I want to help my son write a narrative. He has to choose to be something from our timeline of study with our coop.
He has chosen the Black Death. This seems so exciting to girls smarter than essay, me but I simply cannot wrap my head around how to approach this as a narrative. He actually wants to BE the black death. Ideas? Wow! Your son sounds very creative.
I love this concept. Your son should choose the characteristics of the Black Death that he wants to personify. Admission. Before writing, answer some questions: What’s his motive (as the nature in english, Black Death)? How does he feel about the “work” he is outline doing? Does he have a visible form or is entry ppt he invisible? If visible, how do humans see him?
Try to keep the personification consistent throughout. Then build a narrative arc around this “character” with a beginning, middle and end. Perhaps tell the story of visiting on a particular family. What does he learn from the college admission essay outline, experience? What is the point (thesis)? Most importantly have fun! I love this!
Do you have an argumentative statement and drug, example with a guide just like the one you did for narrative essay but for an illustration essay? Thanks so much Erin! Sorry to ask again, but do you have examples for a research essay and another narrative without dialogue? I want to be able to show my college students different examples of narrative essays.
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4 College Funding Sources – and How Can They Affect Financial Aid. By Deborah Ziff, Contributor | Aug. Admission Outline? 26, 2015, at 9:00 a.m. The financial aid formula is driven more by income than assets, say experts. (Getty Images) Parents of college-bound students may fret about the amount of money they've saved for girls smarter than boys essay, college. But the type of investments they choose also factor into deciding how much financial aid their child will get for school. That's important because most students need some financial aid for essay, college.
Of full-time undergraduate students at a four-year colleges, 85 percent received some form of me ultima, financial aid in 2012-2013, according to the National Center for Education Statistics. Many parents approach this topic when they have children in essay outline high school and wonder how their investments will work against them, says Scott Weingold, co-founder and managing partner of College Planning Network, which helps students and families through the college admissions and thesis and drug funding process. If they'd get started a little younger and known how it was going to affect them, I think they'd be a little better off, he says. Student-owned assets, for example, reduce aid eligibility more than parent-owned assets do, while some assets aren’t counted in the financial aid formula at all. Here's how college savings can affect financial aid. 1. College savings accounts: Parent-owned 529 accounts are state-operated investment plans for college outline, college savings that come with tax advantages. They are considered a parent asset on double of accounting ppt, the Free Application for Federal Student Aid. Admission Essay? College savings accounts owned by a dependent student are also considered parent assets. This includes Coverdell Education Savings Accounts, another type of education-specific savings account. This is good news because parent assets are not penalized as severely as student assets when it comes to determining estimated family contribution, a number used by a school to determine federal student aid eligibility.
The idea there is that a certain amount of term paper, a parent's assets are protected for outline, other things they're saving for, like their own retirement, says Karen McCarthy, senior policy analyst for the National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators. Parent assets reduce aid eligibility on a bracketed system that ranges from 2.64 percent to 5.64 percent of the asset's value, said Mark Kantrowitz, senior vice president and publisher of the website Edvisors and co-author of Filing the FAFSA, in an email. Regular savings accounts, mutual funds or CDs in a parent's name are also parent assets. Essays In English? 2. Uniform Transfers to Minors Act accounts: Student assets, on the other hand, reduce aid eligibility by 20 percent of the asset's value. The reason for admission essay, that is essay, they assume dependent students don't have other things that they're saving for college admission outline, like parents do, McCarthy says. And that the operations primary focus of their assets should be going to their own education. A custodial account under the Uniform Transfers or Gifts to Minors Act – known as an UTMA or UGMA – is a tool that some parents use for education savings because the assets can be used for anything benefiting the child, with some tax benefits. But because they are typically counted as student assets, they have a greater impact on essay, financial aid. Statement And Drug? When the admission essay outline time comes to go to college, those accounts count significantly against them for financial aid, upward of girls smarter than boys, about 20 percent each year, Weingold says.
For instance, $10,000 in an UTMA or UGMA will reduce aid eligibility by $2,000. 3. Admission? Retirement accounts: Two major assets are not reported on nature in english, the FAFSA: retirement accounts and the value of a primary home. Some families choose to college essay outline, use a Roth IRA to pay for college because the principal can be withdrawn tax-free and penalty-free anytime for any purpose and distributions can be used to pay qualified higher education expenses without penalty. Keep in mind that the girls than essay amounts withdrawn may count as income and affect financial aid eligibility for college admission essay outline, the next year. 4. Bless Religion? Income: Before families start moving assets around for more favorable FAFSA treatment, they should know that the financial aid formula is driven more by income than by essay outline assets, McCarthy says. What I do say, when we're talking about bless me ultima essay assets – because I do think that people get very concerned about assets and the impact on financial aid – is that assets are much less a factor in the whole formula then income is, McCarthy says.
Lastly, while many schools only college admission use the standard FAFSA form, some colleges – particularly private colleges – have their own formula for financial aid. Using what's called a CSS/Financial Aid Profile in addition to the FAFSA, they may count home equity or ask supplemental questions about small business ownership or the types of cars parents drive, Weingold says. I always tell families, it's a lot more discretionary. Schools, he says, can kind of do what they want to do. Best States for College Readiness. The highest percentage of nature in english, students meet ACT benchmarks in these states.
The Hidden Reason Behind College Dropouts. Two- and four-year colleges must come together to improve transfer student success. Universities With High Tuition, Fees. More than half of these schools have an acceptance rate that's lower than 15 percent, U.S. News data show. Weighing Faculty Diversity for College. Professors from different ethnicities and essay outline backgrounds can broaden students' undergraduate experience.
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Video: Getting Free Money for College. Descriptive Essay About? Learn about the FAFSA and other financial aid basics. Find out about free cash for college. College Essay Outline? Loans can provide extra financial assistance. Financial planning for college is key.
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Essay About On Project Tiger Essays and Research Papers. Project Tiger , launched in 1973-74, is one of our most successful conservation projects in recent times. College Admission Outline? The . Smarter Than Boys Essay? project aims at tiger conservation in specially constituted ' tiger reserves, which are representative of various bio- geographical regions within the country. Is committed to maintaining a viable population of tigers in the wild. Admission Essay Outline? An estimate of the argumentative thesis, population of college admission outline tigers in India at the turn of the century, placed the figure of 40,000. Subsequently, the first tiger census in India. Buffer zone , Conservation in operations management term, India , Conservation reliant species 742 Words | 4 Pages. Project Tiger was launched by Kailash Sankhala in India in 1973. The project aims at ensuring a viable population . of Bengal tigers in college admission essay, their natural habitats and also to protect them from extinction, and preserving areas of biological importance as a natural heritage forever represented as close as possible the diversity ofecosystems across the girls smarter than essay, tiger's distribution in the country. The project's task force visualized these tiger reserves as breeding nuclei, from which surplus animals would emigrate. Bengal tiger , Conservation reliant species , Habitat 658 Words | 3 Pages.
Types of project managers Construction Project Manager Construction project managers in the past were . individuals, who worked in construction or supporting industries and were promoted to foreman. It was not until the late 20th century that construction and Construction management became distinct fields. Until recently, the American construction industry lacked any level of admission essay standardization, with individual States determining the eligibility requirements within their jurisdiction. However. Academic degree , Architect , Bachelor of Science 691 Words | 3 Pages. ?Jose Luis Gallego Essay E February 4 2013 Is the kingdom of the true feline King about to fall? Asian species expert Dr. . Barney said, “Saving tigers is simple. All they need is enough prey, space and protection.
The difficult part is securing commitment from the world to save the me ultima, species” (WWF, n.p.). 3 Actually there are six species of Tigers living in the wild. Essay? From the smallest species, the Sumatran tiger , to the largest one, the Siberian which can reach up to 10 feet long. They are all critically. Conservation biology , Conservation reliant species , Endangered species 1517 Words | 6 Pages.
Elyse Ferguson Mrs.Wadman Academic English 12 Monday, February, 25, 2013 Essay on “The Lady Or The Tiger ?” Frank R. Stockton . is an American novelist born in double entry system of accounting, Philadelphia in 1834. Frank lived a mischievous boyhood but once he grow up he began to study engraving on wood well on the side he started writing as it was his true passion. When the story “The Lady Or The Tiger ?” was written it had been translated into many different languages through the success Stockton had with it, since he composed. Edgar Allan Poe , Frank R. College Essay Outline? Stockton , Maurice Sendak 1470 Words | 4 Pages. Wangtaolue Guo EL 1000 English Comp?: Exposition, Section 015 Professor Graf 20 October 2012 The Truth about Tiger Mothers . Essays? * attend a sleepover * watch TV or play computer games * get any grade less than an A —Amy Chua, Battle Hymn of the Tiger Mother In her parenting memoir, Amy Chua lists several such things that she would never allow her daughters to do. It is under these strict guidelines that Chua’s two daughters, both of whom are considered as math geniuses and college admission outline music prodigies. Chinese character , Chinese language , Classical Chinese 835 Words | 3 Pages. Tigers are the largest members of the cat family. They live in Asia and operations belong to the same genus as the lion, leopard, and outline jaguar. Two major . subspecies of the tiger are the girls smarter essay, Siberian tiger and the Bengal tiger . The tiger is thought to have originated in essay, northern Asia during the Pleistocene Epoch. br brbScientific classification: /b br Tigers belong to and drug abuse, the family Felidae.
The scientific classifications of each tiger are listed in the Types of Tigers section of this report. br brbAppearance/b brThe. Bengal tiger , Javan Tiger , Megafauna of Eurasia 1129 Words | 4 Pages. the Tiger Mom” by Amy Chua, I was surprised how Chua shared in detail about college admission outline, her life journey as a parent and raising two . Nature In English? children. This is a book about Amy Chua’s experiences in essay, raising her two daughters, Sophia and Luisa (Lulu), in nature in english, what she believes is the “Chinese mother” style of parenting. She is admission quick to point out in the first chapter, entitled “The Chinese Mother,” that she uses the term “loosely” as it would be ridiculous to descriptive dying, try to assume that every mother from China is a like a tiger mom. Childhood , Father , Mother 1378 Words | 4 Pages. The Tiger The Tiger is often described as a particularly dangerous, sly, and admission outline invincible predator. The Tiger . is the argumentative thesis statement abuse, largest of the essay outline, cat family.
They have powerful bodies, large paws, and very sharp claws. The head of the Tiger is rounded and has a convex profile. Operations Management Paper? The ears are black with white in the middle. College Admission Essay? The Tiger's eyes are a yellowish-orange color, but at night they almost look green. Coloration of the Tiger is reddish yellow or rust- brown on the upper side, and argumentative thesis a whitish under side.
Bengal tiger , Camouflage , KILL 1128 Words | 3 Pages. The tiger , largest of all cats, is one of the most charismatic and college admission essay outline evocative species on nature the Earth; tiger is also one of the most . Admission Outline? threatened. Only 6,000 or so remain in the wild, most in isolated pockets spread across increasingly fragmented forests stretching from India to term, south-eastern China and from the Russian Far East to Indonesia. Across its range, tigers are being poisoned, electrocuted, blown up by college outline land mines, trapped, snared, shot and captured. The majority of tigers are sought to meet. Conservation biology , Conservation reliant species , Endangered species 1063 Words | 4 Pages. Tigers One of my most favorite things to do when going to essay, the zoo is to see the big cats, most especially the tigers . The . tiger is the largest of all big cats, and as of right now they are on college outline the verge of thesis and drug extinction. The tiger is the admission essay outline, top of the food chain in its natural habitat. They are a revered animal among many cultures and are considered to be one of the most beautiful animals on the planet.
Due to poaching, illegal trade and the encroachment of their habitats, the tiger is now one of the. Biodiversity , Endangered species , Extinction 919 Words | 3 Pages. Tiger Airways looking for Indian partner Chennai, Mar 6: Tiger Airways, a low-cost carrier, has approached the governments . of thesis and drug abuse Singapore and India to open up more air traffic rights between Chennai and the island country – a route that is choking with air passenger traffic. Currently, the slots are exhausted between the essay, two designations. If an airline wants to increase its frequency to nature, Chennai from college outline, Singapore, it cannot do at this juncture. It is in this context that Tiger Airways is me ultima essay religion looking.
Airline , Chennai International Airport , Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport 1144 Words | 3 Pages. anybody’s greed” these lines were quoted by the father of our nation who was very apt in voicing his concern about admission essay, wildlife conservation. . Girls Boys Essay? Indeed mother nature provides us with enough resources for admission outline our need but when that need changes into greed we start exploiting the earth. This greed of nature a human has bout the world’s most majestic animal to the verge of extinction. ABOUT TIGERS The tiger (Panthera tigris) is the largest cat species, reaching a total body length of up to 3.3 metres (11 ft) and weighing. Bengal tiger , Endangered species , Megafauna of Eurasia 1241 Words | 4 Pages. gained over time’. I will be comparing two poems, one about college admission, innocence and one about girls smarter than essay, experience, both written by college admission essay outline the same poet, . William Blake. William Blake, writer of ‘The Lamb# and ‘The Tiger ’, was born on November 28th, 1757. He died on August 12th, 1827 and during his life time he was an English poet and engraver. ‘The Tiger ’ is a poem of experience and essay about someone dying is from the collection ‘Songs of Experience’. It is a rhyming poem about how the admission, tiger was created. ‘The Lamb’ is a poem of innocence and. Poetic form , Poetry , Question 1014 Words | 3 Pages.
Siberian Tiger Panthera Tigris Altaica Alejandra Benavides Biology Class Period 7 • September 26, 2012 1 Introduction The Siberian . tiger , also known as the Amur tiger , is a tiger subspecies inhabiting mainly in the mountain region of abuse Primorski Krai in eastern Russia. Essay Outline? The population has been stable more more than a decade due to intensive conservation efforts. Surveys from 2005 indicate that the tiger population is declining, showing the species is operations term paper still endangered. Unlike the Bengal. Bengal tiger , Caspian Tiger , Conservation biology 1690 Words | 7 Pages.
Cultural Anthropology November 20, 2012 The White Tiger Response The White Tiger is college outline a brilliant collaboration of wit and . darkness. The main character, a servant of his own kind, is a witty and somewhat likable killer from the underbelly of India. You can not help but enjoy this killer while also being disappointed with this character. Blaram’s story brings up a truth about Indian culture, as well as one- third of the world’s population who suffer from poverty. He explains the white world. Caste , Caste system in India , Endogamy 1196 Words | 3 Pages. Tears of a Tiger | | |Summary: | . | Tigers don't cry, or do they?
After the death of his longtime friend and fellow Hazelwood Tiger , Andy, the driver | |of the car, blames himself and cannot get past his guilt and pain. While his other friends have managed to work | |through their grief and nature essays move on, Andy allows death to become the focus of essay outline his life. In the months that follow the | |accident. Basketball , Best Friends , Blame 885 Words | 3 Pages. ?‘I am in light now’. Operations? Balram’s journey represents a dream held by many but achieved by few.
Do you agree? Adiga presents to the audience, that Balram has . achieved a dream only a White Tiger is willing to college admission essay outline, strive for. This is prevalent in the text as Balram is able to risk what others wouldn’t ever consider, as they are so caught up in the Rooster Coop fending for of accounting their lives. Balram enables himself to commit such acts, as from a young age as he could see what was beautiful in outline, the world and thus. Caste , Caste system in descriptive about, India , Dream 836 Words | 2 Pages.
Essay about paperless world Free Essays on Paperless World for students. Use our papers to help you with yours. College Admission Outline? . Real-World Examples from a Paperless Society Magazine article from: Information Today.We have all heard about the paperless society, a longheralded. Are we slowly moving in the general direction of a less-paper world?. Nature Essays In English? A paperless world may still be inconceivable to us whove grown. NOTICE: Essays and comments posted on World Future Society Web Forums are the intellectual property of the. Essay , Five paragraph essay , Microsoft PowerPoint 832 Words | 3 Pages.
? November 19, 2013 The Endangered Species of Tigers Tigers are native too much of Asia, ranging from the college admission essay, coldest to bless essay, . College Outline? warmest rainforests of the Indonesian islands. They are the top predator in every ecosystem they inhabit. The tiger is the largest of nature in english all the felid family; and Until the 20th Century there were nine tiger subspecies that probably numbered over 100,000 animals ranging from college admission, Bengal, Siberian, Indochinese, South Chinese, Sumatran, Malayan, Caspian, Javan and Bali. Sadly three of. Conservation biology , Conservation reliant species , Endangered species 931 Words | 3 Pages. Critical Analysis of William Blake's Poem The Tiger' “ ” . Someone? Project title: Write a critical analysis of William Blake's poem The Tiger ' paying special attention to the stance of the admission essay, poetic speaker Name: Faculty number: 1063 . Bible , Book of Job , Literature 1378 Words | 4 Pages. Endangered Species: Bengal Tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) By Natalie Hegwein The common name for me ultima the species is Bengal . College Admission Outline? Tiger and it belongs to the genus/species Panthera tigris tigris. The Bengal Tiger usually has a reddish brown coat with narrow black, gray, or brown strips going in a vertical direction accompanied by a cream or white underbelly. Although some have a mutation gene which causes the skin color to be white instead of the usual color.
Since the tigers generally hunt at dusk. Bengal tiger , Conservation biology , Endangered species 956 Words | 3 Pages. ? Senior Project Reflective Essay “Intro to Child Care” Being a big sister I have always been introduced into nature, the basics of . how to take care a children. For my senior project I chose the self-development option where I took a class at WITC on “Intro to Child Care.” The class had a Pass/Fail grading system. College Admission Essay Outline? I decided to take the class as my senior project to someone, expand my prior knowledge on childcare. Also I took the college essay outline, class to determine if I want to pursue a career in entry, childcare so I would know what. Child development , Childhood , Day care 842 Words | 4 Pages.
The Siberian tiger is one of the rarest species in the world and it holds many characteristics that makes it unique and presentable as the college essay outline, true . beauty of nature. These animals are critically endangered, facing an extremely high risk of extinction in argumentative thesis statement and drug, the wild. There are currently less than 600 tigers living in admission, the wild, and they are ranked among the most valuable animals in entry of accounting ppt, the wild. Admission Essay? These tigers are currently confined to the Eastern region of Asia and are also known as the Amur, Manchurian, Korean. Bengal tiger , Caspian Tiger , Endangered species 1247 Words | 4 Pages. Siberian tiger , has been roaming earth for descriptive essay about many years. The Siberian tiger subspecies has been subjected to many obstacles, which . make it very difficult for it to survive. Their main threat is not lack of food, but “man,” one of admission essay outline God’s most fierce and cruel species. Because of man the tiger population has reduced to nature, approximately 400 in the wild, and restricted their remaining habitat to the Russian Far East (Field Projects ). Man has done many things to destroy the Russian Siberian tiger . They have. Bengal tiger , Conservation biology , KILL 1134 Words | 3 Pages.
?COMPARISION AND CONTRAST ESSAY Humans are not all the same, just like animals; although we have many similarities, there can also be many . differences. In Life of Pi, we are introduced to a tiger named Richard Parker and in “The Tyger” by William Blake we are introduced to college admission essay outline, another tiger . Richard Parker and the tiger from The Tyger are alike and different in many ways; similarities that are significant are concepts such as the way both tigers are feared, their symbolic comparison to fire and descriptive someone dying how. Canada Reads , Difference , Fear 1159 Words | 3 Pages. ? PART I ESSAY Origin of Essay History of admission essay outline essay as a literature form has begun in system, 1580 when Michel de . Montaigne has published the outline, book “Les Essais”. In French term “essais” means “try” or “experience”. It was a book written because of boredom; it did not have a distinct structure or plan, and consisted of individual chapters, formally unrelated to each other. Montaigne suggested his literary tests in form of than boys initial essay , highlighting their subjective, relative, and inconclusive sides.
Essay , Essays , Exposition 1691 Words | 5 Pages. English 10 Aspiring Education Education is a must on every people’s lives, a requirement for a person to college, be successful in life. We can all remember how . our parents scold as, as we disobeyed on what they are telling us to do. About Dying? My parents inspire me about education. Both of them finished high school and college admission essay outline graduated in college; my father graduate with a Master’s Degree while my mother has a Bachelor’s Degree.
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Affect , Effect , University 980 Words | 4 Pages. once tiger hunting had officially been banned in India, a tiger count was done across the entire country. College Essay Outline? This lead to the . shocking discovery that only 1800 specimens of this magnificent animal were left. This jolted the concerned authorities and some serious thought went into devising plans to save the tiger . The result was the launch of Project Tiger in 1972 at essay dying, the Dhikala Forest Rest House in Corbett National Park. College Admission Outline? The main idea behind the smarter than boys, project was to provide safe havens for tigers where. Assam , Bengal tiger , National Tiger Conservation Authority 479 Words | 2 Pages.
? It is evident that the global economy has moved on from the Asian Tigers and the present and college essay future of the global economy does in fact lie . elsewhere, in double entry system of accounting ppt, particular India and China. The Asian Tigers are a group of countries which are the first set of college admission outline NIC's; Taiwan, Singapore, Hong Kong and system of accounting South Korea. They underwent rapid development in the 1960's by encouraging TNC's to invest by opening up manufacturing plants by admission essay offering cheap labour and less strict pollution laws. TNC's also had the advantage. BRIC , Economic growth , Economics 1051 Words | 4 Pages. before coming up with final decisions. Similarly, this is also the essays, financial plan to control the future operations and outcome of the business.
Moreover, . Long-term plans describe what you expect to accomplish in the next three months, as well as any project that will take longer than a week. College Admission Essay Outline? Short-term plans cover what you want to accomplish today or this week. Short-term plans also can be steps toward longer-term objectives. The advantage of budgeting is monetary control. Nature Essays In English? When you establish. Budget , Budgets , Economics 941 Words | 3 Pages. Tiger Mon Equal to college outline, Children Success in double entry of accounting ppt, Future. issue .of .whether .a . Admission Essay Outline? tiger .mum .equals .a .better .future .has .aroused .a .wide .debate .in our community recently. Term? The .news .recently . College Admission Essay? .reported .that Asian tiger parents also called Chinese-style version of parenting, struggle much effect to children. However, I disagree with the nature essays, above statement, in college admission outline, this essay ; I will explain the reasons and management term paper conclude that the tiger mom is equal to better future for their children.
The background is that it has been argued that a tiger mom cannot lead students. Child , Childhood , Mother 1226 Words | 4 Pages. Save Tigers 1411 left in India! Steps to save Tigers 10:21 AM | Posted by admission essay outline Rocky Singh Over the past century the number of double entry system of accounting . tigers in India has fallen from about 40,000 to less than 4,000 (and possibly as few as 1,500). College Admission Essay? Relentless poaching and clearing of habitat for management term paper agriculture have been the primary drivers of essay outline this decline, though demand for nature essays tiger skins and parts for medicinal purposes has become an admission essay outline, increasingly important threat in recent years.
However the news is in english not all bad. Research. Conservation biology , Conservation reliant species , Ecology 1901 Words | 6 Pages. About Narrative Essay Narrative essay is a popular topic on admission essay the Continuous Writing section and students should . Argumentative Statement? take note that this topic has appeared in outline, the SPM examination almost every year since the paper, paper was introduced. Many people think that writing a story is a difficult task, but believe me, it is college admission essay much easier than what you think because you are not confined to any particular point.
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constantly growing deforestation, poaching and negligence towards animals and nature. The Indian Government has started nature projects like, . Project Tiger , Nature Camps, Jungle Lodges, etc. to encourage wildlife awareness among the college essay outline, common people. Besides preserving the argumentative thesis statement and drug, natural heritage, these projects also promote eco-tourism. Wildlife Conservation in India occupies a total area of about 3.29 million sq. km. that contains floral and faunal species, mammals, reptiles, insects and outline birds. Bless Me Ultima Essay Religion? The Wildlife Conservation.
Biodiversity , Conservation biology , Fauna of India 2489 Words | 7 Pages. Tears of a Tiger by Sharon M. Draper Informational Essay – English 10 – 25 Points Format Requirements: Microsoft Word No . less than 500 words No less than 5 paragraphs 1 paragraph = 5-7 sentences at essay outline, least Times New Roman 12 pt. font Double-spaced 1” margins Include: Your name Date Home School Essay Title Prompt: After reading the novel Tears of a Tiger by double Sharon Draper, select and college admission outline research one issue from the double system of accounting ppt, list below; then, write an informative essay . Abortion Anorexia . Addiction , Alcohol abuse , Alcoholism 668 Words | 4 Pages. In The Introductory Paragraph To This Essay About Essays. introductory paragraph to this essay about essays I will tell you that you don’t need an introductory paragraph, at . least not of the admission outline, 1) topic sentence 2) structural methodology 3) thesis statement varity that we were all taught in high school. What you do need is That Thing; maybe a question, a fear or a fury.
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CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION The purpose of my project is to introduce my product which is “perfume made from rose and sun flower”.Nowadays . perfume is the common thing that people are using.Where using it when we will arrive in our house or when we go outside.I choose perfume because it is indemand and many people using perfumes. Many perfumes factory are using chemicals in their perfumes. We need to find another way on of accounting ppt how we can made natural perfumes that has a natural ingridients. That’s why I. Aroma compound , Bottle , Distillation 616 Words | 3 Pages. Some of the following content has been altered to admission, maintain anonymity. MSU standards for intellectual honesty apply to scholarship application . essays . Essays copied in whole or in part from these samples or any other applicant’s work will be rejected and may result in disciplinary action. Double Entry Ppt? Essay #1 Score: 4.0 For as long as I can remember I’ve known what I wanted to do with my life. Science has always been a passion of mine, and medicine in particular has interested me for some time.
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